Global sea level

Abrupt Sea Level Rise Looms As Increasingly Realistic Threat
But Antarctica is vast — 1.5 times the size of the United States, with ice three miles thick in places — and holds enough ice to raise global sea levels by roughly 200 feet. ... The sizeable western half of the Antarctic, by contrast, has its base lying below sea level, and holds some of the fastest warming areas on the planet. “You look at West Antarctica and you think: How come it’s still there?” says Rignot.
21 January
Antarctic temperature and global sea level closely
Ice cores from Antarctica record temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide variations over the past six glacial cycles1,2. Yet concomitant records of sea-level uctuations—needed to reveal rates and magnitudes of ice-volume change that provide context to projections for the future3–9—remain elusive. ... Here we present a sea-level record for the past 520,000 years based on stable oxygen isotope analyses of planktonic foraminifera and bulk sediments from the Red Sea. Our record reveals a strong correlation on multi-millennial timescales between global sea level and Antarctic temperature1...
2 Fundamental Questions of Global Change | Future Science...
Globally, rising sea level is expected to threaten the homes and livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people by the second half of this century (see Box 2.2). In an assessment of exposure to coastal flooding by 2070, Miami and New York City ranked. ... With the final separation of the supercontinent and the 10-fold drop in global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels from 3,000 parts per million (ppm) in the Cretaceous, to around 500 ppm approximately 34 million years ago, both Antarctica and the globe cooled (Arthur et al., 1988; Jenkyns et al., 1994; Kuhnt et al., 1986).
9 October
Antarctica for Global | Sea Level Rise with Ice Sheet Melting
Antarctica for Global Climate. Sea Ice Mass Balance in the Antarctic (SIMBA) International Polar Year 2007. Role of Sea Ice Arctic and. ... Formation and Melting of these and other continental ice sheets (now gone) have been the major factors in sea level change in geologic time. Sources: Global Land Ice Measurements From Space, National Snow and Ice Data Center: Michael Zemp, World Glacier Monitoring Service NGM Maps, National Geographic Magazine.
ABSTRACT We obtained global sea-level (eustatic)...
Geology, published online on 19 March 2012 as doi:10.1130/G32869.1. High tide of the warm Pliocene: Implications of global sea level for Antarctic deglaciation. ... Lewis, A.R., Marchant, D.R., Ashworth, A.C., Hemming, S.R., and Machlus, M.L., 2007, Major middle Miocene global climate change: Evidence from East Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 119, p. 1449–1461, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(2007)119 [1449:MMMGCC]2.0.CO;2.
Keywords: sea level, global warming, glaciology, ice sheets
Mercer (1978) suggested that global warming from burning of fossil fuels could lead to disastrous disintegration of the West Antarctic ice sheet, with a sea level rise of several meters worldwide. ... Global warming of several more degrees, with its polar amplication, would have both Greenland and West Antarctica bathed in summer melt for extended melt seasons. The IPCC (2007) midrange projection for sea level rise this century is 20–43 cm (8–17 inches) and its full range is 18– 59 cm (7–23 inches).
Rapid barotropic sea level rise from ice sheet melting
Sea level rise associated with idealized Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet melting events is examined using a global coupled ocean sea-ice model that has a free surface formulation and thus can simulate fast barotropic motions. The perturbation experiments follow the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiment (CORE) version III. ... Estimates by Shepherd and Wingham [2007] are 20% higher, where the global mean sea level rise signal is 0.5 mm yrA1 from Greenland and 0.21 mm yrA1 from the combination of East and West Antarctica.
Changing Antarctic winds create new sea level threat
Projected changes in the winds circling Antarctica may accelerate global sea level rise significantly more than previously estimated, research shows. Changes to Antarctic winds have already been linked to southern Australia’s drying climate but now it appears they may also have a profound impact on warming ocean temperatures under the ice shelves along the coastline of West and East Antarctic.
20 February
Sea level change | Tectonic control of global sea level
– Global vs. local – Geologic – Modern. • Current rates of rise. – Observations, calculations, and models. • Lessons from the past • Projected future changes. Tectonic control of global sea level. 1. Change the size of the ocean basins. A bigger or smaller container. • ... Glacio-eustatic sea level change. • Changes amount of water in ocean basins • Largest volumes tied up in ice sheets. – Greenland, Antarctica. • Colder climates have lower sea level (on this large scale). Eustatic sea level over geologic time. • How?
Sea-level change
During the twentieth century, the global-mean sea-level has risen, on average, by 10-20 cm (1). The three factors chiefly determining sea-level change are: thermal expansion of the oceans, melting of non-polar glaciers, and. change in the volume of the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland. ... The Greenland discharge would raise global sea levels by 1.1 mm/a, whereas the Antarctic accumulation would lower levels by 0.9 mm/a (4). In other words, changes in the ice budget at opposite poles would more or less offset each other.
20 November
1. GEOL 1110, fall 2015 2. 12345 3. sea level; Antarctica...
In 1978 Mercer pointed out that a rapid rise in sea level could accompany the collapse of the Antarctic ice cap. Although a high stand of sea level during an interglacial period 110 to 130 thousand years ago supports such a scenario, evidence that at least one major ice stream in Antarctica has not moved for over 100 years suggests that no collapse is taking place today. Furthermore, because some climate models predict that global warming could actually increase the amount of snow and ice in Antarctica...
Study: Past warming increased snowfall on Antarctica...
That means that many computer models may be underestimating the amount and rate of sea level rise if they had projected more significant impact from Antarctic snow. Results of the study, which was funded by the National Science Foundation, were reported this week in the journal Nature Climate Change. Scientists have long suspected that snowfall in Antarctica increases during planetary warming and the impact of so much snow tied up on land would have a negative effect on global sea levels.
16 March
Antarctica works as living global warming
rise in sea levels around the globe. "It's a bellwether for the planet," Tom Wagner of the U.S. National Science Foundation said in an e-mail interview. "Its ice sheets are the main player in. w.- -* - -- sea level rise; there is already evidence that they are shrinking." ... Powell is one of the chief scientists on the ANDRILL project -- shorthand for Antarctic Geologic. Drilling Program -- where a massive drill burrows down about 80 metres of sea ice, 830 metres of. The Star Online > Worldupdates. December 10,2006. Antarctica works as living global warming laboratory.
Rates of sea level change
Synthesizing geological sea level indicators into a global reconstruction requires taking into account inter-pretative uncertainties, geochronological uncertainties, and regional variability. Dierences between local and global sea level arise from several factors, including the distortion of the geoid and the elastic ... Ice core data from both Greenland and Antarctica suggest polar temper-ature anomalies in both hemispheres of about 35?C (Jansen et al., 2007), comparable to the 36?C of Arctic warming expected to accompany 12?C of global warm-ing (Katsov et al., 2004). In Europe, pollen data sug-gest middle...
Sea Level Rise and Global ... N.K. Vyas et al.
Damon and Kunen (1976) found that the annual average temperatures in the West Antarctica increased by 2° C at Argentine Island (65° S), McMurdo (78° S) and Byrd (80° S). Budd (1975) and Thomas (1976) reports that the temperature at 10 m depth in eastern Ross ice-shelf rose by 1° C between 1958-1972 suggesting ... The above discussion leads us to think that the warming over the past century in the West Antarctic ice sheet region would have added to the flow of its ice streams thereby providing additional contribution of 360-756 km3 to the global sea level rise (ranging from 10 - 21 cm) in the past century.
29 January
Bringing sea-level rise into long range planning
Antarctica, potentially the largest trigger of global sea-level rise, presents a more enigmatic picture than Greenland. On average the globe has warmed about 1.1°F in the 50 years ending in 2005, while Antarctica has cooled about 10°C in October-November since 1985. Why has the air above Antarctica cooled over this period? The Antarctic ozone hole opened up about the same time as cooling began. Ozone absorbs UV radiation heating the atmosphere around it and absence of ozone has led to cooling in the stratosphere.
Filchner–Ronne Ice Shelf, respectively) and into the...
The present Antarctic contribution to global sea-level rise would then be 1.9 mm yr?1, of which 0.6–0.8 mm yr?1 would come from WAIS. These contributions would more than account for the difference between measured sea-level rise and model calculations of changes in ocean volume over the past century4,25. If unchanging, the projected increment to sea-level rise from Antarctica would be 19 cm over the coming century as compared to a total projected rise of 13–94 cm (ref. 4). The assumption that the entire negative ice balance corresponds to loss of grounded ice probably gives an upper limit...
NSIDC Artic Sea Ice News | CU Sea Level Research Group
Global sea ice (Arctic plus Antarctic) continues to track at record low levels in the satellite record, but the deviation from average has moderated compared to what was observed in November. ... Air temperatures at the 925 hPa level (approximately 2,500 feet) during the period of rapid sea ice decline in Antarctica (October 27 through November 17) were 2 to 4 degrees Celsius (4 to 7 degrees Fahrenheit) above average near the sea ice edge.
9 May
Update of Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Loss: Exponential?
A crucial question is how rapidly the Greenland (or Antarctic) ice sheet can disintegrate in response to global warming. Earth's history makes it clear that burning all fossil fuels would cause eventual sea level rise of tens of meters, thus practically wiping out thousands of cities located on global coast lines. ... West Antarctic ice is probably more vulnerable to rapid disintegration than Greenland ice, because the West Antarctic ice sheet rests mainly on bedrock below sea level (Hughes, 1972). The principal mechanism for mass loss from West Antarctica is warming of the ocean, melting of West Antarctic ice shelves, and...
Reassessment of the Potential Sea-Level Rise from
We obtain a value for the global, eustatic sea-level rise contribution of about 3.3 meters, with important regional variations. The maximum increase is concentrated along the Pacific and Atlantic seaboard of the United States, where the value is about 25% greater than the global mean ... These values are considerably smaller than, for example, melt-water pulse 1A at around 14 kyr B.P., which was responsible for a ~20-m rise in sea level in ~500 years and which may have partly originated from Antarctica (21, 22). They are also less than the estimate of 10 mm year?1 mentioned earlier and derived from a risk assessment study (9).
Ice Caps and Sea Levels as an Indicator of Global Climate...
The Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica is losing ice four times faster than it was a decade ago. Numerous ice shelves in the Antarctic and Arctic collapse and drift out to sea. The Larsen A ice shelf disintegrated in 1995; the Larsen B ice shelf disintegrated in 2002. ... New studies examine how the disintegration of ice sheets could result in a rise in global sea levels. Other research attempts to estimate the level of rise should particular ice sheets disintegrate and melt in open ocean waters.
24 October
A ntarctica and Greenland hold enough ice
Recent Sea-Level Contributions of the. (12, 23)]. There is, moreover, evidence in Green-land and Antarctica of recent accelerations in these. Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets. ... depended, and there is renewed speculation. After a century of polar exploration, the past decade of satellite measurements has painted an (26, 27) of accelerated sea-level rise from the ice. altogether new picture of how Earth’s ice sheets are changing. As global temperatures have risen, sheets under a constant rate of climate warming.
Antarctica and Greenland Mass-Balance Problem
Of the four factors that contribute to sea level rise, Greenland and Antarctica contain the highest degrees of future uncertainty... greater stakes on earth's climatological "dice roll". With this exercise, you control the future of global warming (or cooling) of the world. ... Hopefully, you remember the relationship between global warming, sea level rise, mass-balance, accumulation, and ablation. Your job is to predict an increase or decrease in mass-balance and sea level rise based on seven different climactic scenarios.
13 April
Increasing Antarctic Sea Ice under Warming Atmospheric...
Estimates of sea ice extent based on satellite observations show an increasing Antarctic sea ice cover from 1979 to 2004 even though in situ observations show a prevailing warming trend in both the atmosphere and the ocean. This riddle is explored here using a global multicategory thickness and enthalpy distribution sea ice model coupled to an ocean model. ... The lat-est aircraft and satellite laser-altimeter observations in-dicate an increased thinning of glaciers and accelerated rise of sea level from western Antarctica (Thomas et al.
Contemporary Sea Level Rise
The mass balance of the ice sheets is a topic of considerable interest in the context of global warming and sea level rise. If totally melted, Greenland and West Antarctica would raise sea level by approximately 7 and 3–5 m, respectively. ... Table 1 Sea level budget for two time spans (1993–2007, 2003–2007)?. Sea level rise (mm year?1) Observed Thermal expansion Ocean mass Glaciers Total ice sheets (Greenland & Antarctic). Land waters.
Melting Away
END NOTES: Although this value is consistent with those calculated by the IPCC, 200112, the possible non-linearity of ice flow could imply that West Antarctica might be subject to some massive ice loss in the near future.18 The Results. Combining thermal expansion and mass balance contributions, we arrive at a total sea level rise of just under twenty-eight centimeters over the next hundred years given a three degree global temperature increase.
How will Antarctica contribute to changes in global sea level?
Antarctica’s ice sheets hold about 90 percent of the world’s ice and fresh water, and if all this ice were to melt, global sea levels would rise by more than 60 meters. Therefore, scientists need to understand how rapidly the world is warming, if Antarctic ice loss will accelerate, and how quickly sea level will rise. To reach this goal, increased observations of Antarctic ice sheet melting are needed, as well as improved models to better predict the rate of ice sheet loss.
Keywords Antarctica · Arctic · Sea-level · Ice sheet stability...
The Arctic is today warming as fast as, or faster than, any other area on earth, with the imminent loss of summer sea-ice and increasing loss of ice from Greenland (adding to rising global sea level). Antarctic warming has also begun to rise, despite its suppression from the loss of the ozone hole in the last three decades. ... Modelling studies indicate that these con-ditions not only collapsed the Ross Ice Shelf but also led to a huge loss of ice in West Antarctica and some from East Antarctica, contributing to a rise of 7 m in global sea level (Naish et al., 2009).
Sea Level and its Rise | Determining global sea level rise
Figure 11.4: Estimates of global sea level change over the last 140,000 years. (continuous line) and contributions to this change from the major ice sheets: (i) North America, including Laurentia, Cordilleran ice, and Greenland, (ii) Northern Europe (Fennoscandia), including the Barents region, (iii) Antarctica. (From Lambeck, 1999.) TAR. 38. Figure 11.8: Global mean sea level variations (light line).
About Antarctica: Global Warming Exercise
Ushuaia serves as the starting point for shipping to and from western Antarctica. Coastal cities like Ushuaia, New York, Tokyo, and Sydney will suffer massive damage as polar ice caps melt and sea levels rise. Rising sea waters also will affect waterways and low, inland areas such as the Mississippi, Amazon, and Nile river valleys. To see what will happen to Ushuaia, study the water level in the photo and then select one of the global temperature levels by clicking one of the buttons on the left.
1 January
Ice Melt, Sea Level Rise and Superstorms: Evidence from...
Meltwater reduces global warming about half by the time sea level rise reaches 1.7 m. Cooling due to ice melt more than eliminates A1B warming in large areas of the globe. 13. Fig. ... (2014) using satellite measured changes of sea level around Antarctica in the period 1992-2011. Sea level along the Antarctic coast rose 2 mm/year faster than the regional mean sea level rise in the Southern Ocean south of 50°S, an effect that they conclude is almost entirely a steric adjustment caused by accelerating freshwater discharge from Antarctica.
Global warming and sea level rise
Global sea level rise as an indicator of climate change. Given the following data, how much can sea level rise if all the world’s ice melts? Estimate of the total amount of ice available. Location Volume. Antarctica. East Antarctic ice sheet West Antarctic ice sheet Antarctic Peninsula. Greenland. All other ice caps, ice fields and valley glaciers.
The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming
The total volume of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is equivalent to 55–60 m of global mean sea level (31). Most of the ice loss on Antarctica is due to solid-ice discharge, and thus the representation of the ice ow and sliding is par-ticularly important. For continental-scale models, as required for estimates of the total sea-level contribution, a realistic repre-sentation of the grounding line position is a challenge at hori-zontal resolutions that allow for a simulation of whole Antarctica (32–34).
Climate Science Investigations South Florida - Impacts of...
The continent, Antarctica, is isolated from the rest of the climate system by global winds and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The continent is covered by an ice sheet averaging 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) in thickness. The Antarctic Ice Sheet covers an area larger than the U.S. and Mexico combined. The Antarctica ice sheet contains 90% of the fresh water on Earth. If all of this ice on Antarctica melted, global sea level would rise at least 61 meters (200 feet).
2 January
Global Warming and Rising Sea Levels
The global mean temperature has also been increasing in a less steady fashion (NOAA, 2015). By comparing the data one can see a positive trend in both GMSL and global mean temperature which indicates that global warming may be a large contributor to the rise in global sea levels (Figure 1). Additional evidence comes in the form of the contributors to the rising GMSL. They are thermal expansion of the ocean and melting of glaciers and ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland.
18 March
A ntarctica and Greenland hold enough ice
As global temperatures have risen, are not captured in the models on which IPCC. DCoonontfdiudpliecatnetial. so have rates of snowfall, ice melting, and glacier flow. Although the balance between these. predictions have depended, and there is renewed. opposing processes has varied considerably on a regional scale, data show that Antarctica and speculation (26, 27) of accelerated sea-level rise. Greenland are each losing mass overall.
Antarctica Is Gaining Ice
This can cause a rise in sea levels globally, and if our planet were to see a rise of just a few meters, the results would be catastrophic. ... Although sea ice is increasing in Antarctica, it has been made apparent that this has nothing to do with climate change (it certainly isn’t getting cooler), and that these increases do not effect the rise in sea level. However, the cause for concern is the decrease of Antarctic land ice, which is directly affected by warming global temperatures and will have a considerable effect on sea level rise.
Polar Meteorology Group Home Page
We employed the Polar MM5 to model variability and change in the surface mass balance (the net accumulation of moisture) over Antarctica in recent decades. This work is motivated by the need to understand the contribution to global sea level change of Antarctica, which holds about 90% of the fresh water on earth. It also provides an extremely valuable dataset of temperature, pressure, winds, moisture, etc. for the broader Antarctic research community that can be applied to a range of climate studies [download dataset #1] .
27 January
Sea level rise
These once-submerged reefs and nearby paleo-beach deposits are silent testimony that sea level spent enough time at that higher level to allow the reefs to grow (exactly where this extra sea water came from—Antarctica or Greenland—has not yet been determined). ... Future sea level rise, like the recent rise, is not expected to be globally uniform (details below). Some regions show a sea-level rise substantially more than the global average (in many cases of more than twice the average), and others a sea level fall.
13 October
The Antarctic Ice Sheet and | Sea level change
West Antarctic mass loss equiv to 1mm/yr global sea level rise. } Pacific islands feel the brunt, regardless } Northern Europe feels less than average due to Greenland melt. Why location matters: gravity and rebound. ... • Previous estimates of linear mass change rates range from -31 to -246 Gt/a. • Our estimates lie towards the upper (less negative) end of this range. • We find negligible basin-total mass gain in West Antarctica outside the Amundsen Sea basins. • Quoted uncertainty due to random errors.
Name | Elevation: The height an area of land above sea level.
increase (rise) in the global sea level. Salt marshes are wetland ecosystems found along an open coastline or within an estuary. The mass of plants and animals (biomass) that is produced naturally on an acre of salt marsh is greater than what is produced on fertilized farmland. ... This causes the volume to increase so that the level of the water will increase or rise. Land-based ice: Large areas of ice on the continents, such as the polar ice caps of the Arctic and Antarctica as well as the ice sheet covering Greenland. This also includes mountain glaciers.
The Antarctic
A new assessment of climate change in the Arctic shows the ice in the region is melting faster than previously thought and sharply raises projections of global sea level rise this century. The findings "emphasize the need for greater urgency" in combating global warming, says the report of the Arctic Monitoring and ... NASA warns that "Antarctica contains 90 percent of Earth's fresh water, making it the largest potential source of sea level rise." In March 2008, NASA reported the Wilkins Ice Shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula disintegrated, something it said was "an indication of warming temperatures in the region."
3 July
A View of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Evolution from
Global sea level dropped by ~55-82 m at 33.55 Ma, indi-cating that the deep-sea D18O increase was due to transfer of the water from the oceans to the Antarctic ice sheet, which was 80-130 percent of the modern size, as discussed above. The amount of cooling associated with Oi1 is still uncertain. ... 70 antarctica: a keystone in a changing world. Vail, P. R., R. M. Mitchum, R. G. Todd, J. M. Widmier, S. Thompson III, J. B. Sangree, J. N. Bubb, and W. G. Hatlelid. 1977. Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level.
Sea Level Rise : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Other factors affect sea levels locally over short time scales, such as tides, storms, floods, and tsunamis. What is of most concern today is sea level rise driven by climate change, which affects both the amount and density of ocean water. As air and water temperatures rise around the world, scientists are seeing more ice and meltwater moving from land-based sources on Antarctica and Greenland into the ocean. ... Global Warming. Hurricanes.
24 April
University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Calibration of deep-sea ?18O records against independently measured apparent sea-level changes resolves the hypothesized conflict between oceanographic and Antarctic climate records and evidence for a decrease in pCO2 during late Oligocene to early Miocene time (see Zachos et al., 2001; Pagani et al., 2005). ... Florindo, F., Wilson, G.S., Roberts, A.P., Sagnotti, L., Verosub, K.L., 2005. Magnetostratigraphic chronology of a late Eocene to early Miocene glacimarine succession from the Victoria basin, Ross Sea, Antarctica. Global and Planetary Change 45, 207-236.
Mountain glaciers and ice caps around Antarctica make...
Global [2] Sea-level rise is dominated by ocean thermal expan- glacier surface mass balances are computed on a regular sion and mass losses from glaciers [Intergovernmental 1  1° global grid and converted into sea-level equivalent Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007; Domingues et (SLE, defined as minus specific mass balance ... We to dominate eustatic sea-level rise, exceeding the contribu- incorporate all MG&IC including those around the ice tions from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets for at least sheets in Greenland and Antarctica (Figure 1a), but we another century [Meier et al., 2007].
9 November
Figure 1. Ice loss from Antarctica (in meters sea-level...)
The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 m in global sea-level rise. We show in simulations with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil fuel emissions of 10,000 giga–metric tonnes of carbon (GtC), Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 m per century during the first millennium.
21 August
Ups and downs of sea level | Harvard Gazette
In that case, the falling sea level would be near Antarctica and the highest rise would be offshore of Washington, D.C. “The moral is what you’re going to see depends on where you are,” Mitrovica said. Mitrovica’s talk, “Ancient Eclipses, Roman Fish Tanks, and the Enigma of Global Sea Level Rise,” examined the dynamics of sea level rise ... Areas that used to be endangered by 100-year floods are now in the 20-year flood zone. The sea level picture isn’t all bad news, Mitrovica said. Some have worried that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet could undergo catastrophic collapse, raising the sea level enough to inundate many cities.
23 September
Measuring Global Sea Level
Across the Atlantic, ice blanketed Iceland and stretched down over the British Isles and northern Europe, including Germany and Poland. The Patagonian ice sheet crept north from Antarctica to cover parts of Chile and Argentina. The climate was colder and drier globally; rain was scarce, but pockets of rainforest survived in the tropics. With so much of the planet's water tied up in ice, global sea level was more than 400 feet lower than it is today.
31 May
Comparison of global mean sea-level rise projections
Fingerprint adjustments were used by the NRC in estimating the effects on relative sea level along the U.S. West Coast. Similarly, land-ice change scale factors appropriate to Maryland’s location were applied to the contributions of glaciers (0.9), Greenland (0.5)43, and Antarctica (1.25)44 to the relative components of global mean sea level (GMSL) rise projected by the NRC.
Acceleration of the contribution of the Greenland and...
Reducing uncertainties in the estimates of d2M/dt2 directly reduces uncertainties in near?term sea level projections. [3] Here, we present a 20?year record of monthly ice sheet mass balance for Greenland and Antarctica. ... A small positive increase in Antarctic SMB could offset these coastal losses, but this effect has not yet been observed. [19] If the acceleration in ice sheet loss of 36.3 ± 2 Gt/yr2 continues for the next decades, the cumulative ice sheet loss would raise global sea level by 15 ± 2 cm in year 2050 compared to 2009/2010.
CHAPTER 4 | 4.4 Timescales of sea level response
The main causes of increased global average sea level during the 21st century are likely to be thermal expansion of the ocean, melting of small glaciers, and the melting of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets (Church et al., 2001). Thermal expansion and the melting of small gla-ciers are expected to dominate, with Greenland contribut-ing a small but positive sea-level rise, which may be partly offset by a small and negative contribution from Antarctica.
Future Science Opportunities in Antarctica and the Southern
Sea level is rising, global weather patterns are shifting, and the chemical and biological processes of the planet are changing. The poles are particularly susceptible to climate change, with the Arctic already displaying large temperature changes. The situation in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean is complicated by the influence of the Antarctic ozone hole, another human-induced change that has uniquely affected this region.
Global Sea Level and Potential Future Decay of Ice Sheets in...
Drowning the bumps puts the ice sheet on the proverbial "banana peel" and allows it to slide faster into the sea, thereby raising sea level and releasing armadas of icebergs that cool surface water in the North Atlantic. In Antarctica, enhanced melting in the ablation zone occurs under the floating fringe of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, and water-filled bottom crevasses move upward to release gigantic icebergs into the Antarctic Ocean. ... glaciation as the worst-case scenario. Ironically, this could be triggered by ongoing global warming.
30 November
Effects of Antarctic ice sheet on global sea level subject of...
Effects of Antarctic ice sheet on global sea level subject of Brown Bag Lecture March 29. Dr. Jaehyung Yu, assistant professor of geosciences at Texas A&M University-Kingsville, serves as speaker for the next Physics/Geosciences Brown Bag Lecture. The topic of Yu’s presentation is “Effect of Antarctic Ice Sheet on Global Sea Level Rise: The Story from the Satellite.” The lecture takes place Wednesday, March 29, at noon in room 140 of Manning Hall, on the A&M-Kingsville campus.
Global Mean Sea Level from TOPEX & Jason Altimetry
Since 1993, measurements from the TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason series (Jason-1, Jason-2, and soon, Jason-3) of satellite radar altimeter missions have allowed estimates of global mean sea level (e.g., sea surface height averaged globally over the planet). ... In combination with satellite gravity data (GRACE), one can parse out the major contributions to the observed 3.3 mm/year increase in global mean sea level (thermal expansion, Greenland, Antarctica, mountain glaciers).
21 December
GFS Analysis+Forecast Maps
- Zoom. + See. ?? Help ?? for Keyboard Shortcuts. Multiple Variables. Up Var. Down Var.
Links to the page contain: Mean Sea Level Pressure....
2 December
Ice Caps and Sea Levels as an Indicator of Global Climate...
The Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica is losing ice four times faster than it was a decade ago. Numerous ice shelves in the Antarctic and Arctic collapse and drift out to sea. The Larsen A ice shelf disintegrated in 1995; the Larsen B ice shelf disintegrated in 2002. ... New studies examine how the disintegration of ice sheets could result in a rise in global sea levels. Other research attempts to estimate the level of rise should particular ice sheets disintegrate and melt in open ocean waters.
24 October
Working group I contribution to the IPCC fifth assessment report
Ocean thermal expansion and glacier melting have been the dominant contributors to 20th century global mean sea level rise. Observations since 1971 indicate that thermal expansion and glaciers (excluding the glaciers in Antarctica) explain 75% of the observed rise (high confidence). The contribution of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets has increased since the early 1990s, partly from increased outflow induced by warming of the immediately adjacent ocean.
Why Doesn't Anyone Mention the Record Growth of Sea Ice...
Basically the Antarctic winter data show level trends and the summer data are so noisy that the best fit slope has very little statistical significance. So, to answer Ambler's final question: Why, I ask, has Mr. Gore not chosen to mention the record growth of sea ice around Antarctica? ... So here he is on January 6, 2009: This is going to be upsetting news to many of you out there. Global sea ice levels are now equal to those recorded 29 years ago. This is according to the University of Illinois's Arctic Climate Research Center. Why only since 1979?
24 September
Sea-Level Rise and Its Impact on
Global sea levels have risen through the 20th century. These rises will almost certainly accelerate through the 21st century and beyond because of global warming, but their magnitude remains uncertain. Key uncertainties include the possible role of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets and the amplitude ... In contrast, relative sea level is rising. margins of Greenland and West Antarctica where proaches in which a simple relation between past more rapidly than climate-induced trends on subsid-. the grounding line is below sea level, and further sea-level rate and temperature or radiative forcing ing coasts.
Table 2: Total predicted global mean sea level rise for 2040...
Global mean sea level is expected to rise by 3-30 cm by 2040, and 9-88 cm by 2100. An important remaining uncertainty is the future contribution of surface water storage (for example, lakes and reservoirs) to changes in sea level. In addition, there are also significant local sea level effects that need to be taken account in many regions of the globe, including isostatic and tectonic effects. ... (2001) estimate that the contribution of Antarctica to global sea level over the past 100 years is between –2 and 0 cm, with the negative sign caused by increased accumulation of snow.
Sea level change
This thermal expansion is larger at higher temperatures and is one of the main contributors to recent and future sea-level change. Salinity changes within the ocean also have a signiRcant impact on the local density, and thus on local sea level, but have little effect on the global-average sea level. ... Calculations suggest that, over the next hundred years, surface melting is likely to remain negligible in Antarctica. However, projected increases in precipitation would result in a net negative sea-level contribution from the Antarctic ice sheet.
Outline 24 | Long-term Sea Level
• Peak sea level +50-100m. • Fell ~100 m from 50-0 Ma. • Long-term ?18O variations (red) co-vary with sea level (blue). • Ocean crust production controlled greenhouse gases, causing global temperature changes long term. Kenneth Miller, Rutgers University. Source: IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2015. ... Vostok Station, Antarctica: Ice Core for last 400,000 yrs. Russian Drill Penetrates 14-Million-Year-Old Antarctic Lake.
Icebergs in the News December 2002-Scientific American Article. What does Antarctica tell us about Global Climate change? Weather Hand-out. Past Climate from Ice cores. Stories in the Ice. ... We are studying sea ice, frozen sea water which is floating on the ocean. There is some evidence that sea ice in the Arctic has decreased in the last 20 years, but not in the Antarctic. But even if the ice were to melt, it would not affect the sea level since the ice is already floating (a glass of water does not overflow when the ice cubes melt).
6 August
Provenance: Adapted from: Global Sea Level Rise Scenarios...
Relatively small changes in Earth's average temperature can dramatically increase or decrease the amount of Earth's snow, ice and liquid water. With current data trends and computer models predicting a warming climate, sea level rise has become a major concern for coastal areas. A change in average global temperature of just one degree Celsius (two degrees Fahrenheit), could result in a one meter (three foot) rise in average global sea level.
20 February
Stephen f. pekar
ANDRILL: Antarctic Drilling Expedition Member of the science team of a drilling expedition that recovered over 1100 meters of sediments as old as 20 million years old in the Southern McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea, Antarctica. 6/06 Panel Member National Science Foundation, International Polar Year, Informal Science Education. ... Pekar, S.F., Constructing a Global Sea-Level Curve for the Oligocene Using a New Method for Extracting Eustasy from Onshore New Jersey Sequence Stratigraphy: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Geology and Geophysics Department Seminar, November 1999.
Sea Level Rise in the Coastal
However, several independent meas-urements of Greenland and Antarctic mass balance using lasers and gravity measurements indicate that both Greenland and Antarctica have recently (2002-2006) been substantial contributors to global SLR (IPCC 2007, pp. 363-366; Zwally et al. ... time-integrating effect of sea level rise, on which the divergence estimate for the increased antarctic discharge under the SRES. among the scenarios has had little effect by then. By 2090 to scenario A1FI is about 1.3 mm yr–1, a factor of 5 to 10 greater.
Michael P. Meredith, Howard Roscoe and Jon Shanklin
8. Palaeoclimate data, including Antarctic ice core records from glacial cycles over the last 800,000 years, show that CO2 and mean global temperature values ranged globally from 180 ppm and 10?C in glacial periods to 280 ppm and 15?C in interglacial periods. In Antarctica, the pre-industrial cold periods were on average 9?C colder than interglacials. Ice sheets in Ant-arctica and on the northern continents expanded in glacial periods, with sea level dropping by 120 m on average.
Sea Level Changes in the | The Global Context
In addition to this averaging in time, we can also average mean sea levels over a region such as the southeastern United States or the Gulf of Mexico, or over the entire globe, which results in the quantity we refer to as global mean sea level. ... By far the largest source of water that could be added to the ocean is the water stored as ice on Greenland and in Antarctica, and to a smaller degree in mountain glaciers elsewhere in the world. Thus, a major concern is that if the cli-mate warms, then ice melt might cause substantial sea level rise.
Sea Level Rise in the Caribbean
For example, at the end of the last ice age, the Earth slowly warmed by 4–7°C globally, losing two-thirds of its land ice and raising global sea level approximately 120m in the process (at rates often exceeding 1m per century).44 It is further argued that while SLRs up to 2m per century are unusual in the. ... Enhanced constraints on GRACE data will be delivered via a considerably expanded network of GPS sites in Greenland and Antarctica which has developed since 2007 as part of the International Polar Year. Despite these caveats, these findings confirm the ongoing shrinkage of the polar ice sheets.
Amundsen Sea sectors, West Antarctica
Global and Regional Sea-Level Changes and the...
The Conference on "global and regional sea-level changes and the hydrological cycle" addressed the measurement, causes and consequences of recent and projected near-future sea level changes. This bears on the scientific issues facing IGBP/GAIM, BAHC, and LOICZ as well as WCRP and IHDP*. ... While there is some consensus that mountain glaciers and Greenland ice sheet will lose mass in the future and contribute to sea level rise, the role of Antarctica, the largest potential contributor is very poorly constrained. While there is general consensus that in the short-term, atmospheric warming will lead to...
16 December
A 45,000 yr record of Adelie penguins and
Columbia University Press, 310 p. Anderson, J.B., Shipp, S.S., Bartek, L.R., and Reid, D.E., 1992, Evidence for a grounded ice sheet on the Ross Sea continental shelf during the late Pleistocene and preliminary paleodrain-age reconstruction: Antarctic Research Series, v. 57, p. 39–62. ... Hall, B.L., Baroni, C., and Denton, G.H., 2004, Holo-cene relative sea-level history of the southern Victoria Land coast, Antarctica: Global and Planetary Change, v. 42, p. 241–263, doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2003.09.004.
Carbon choices determine US cities committed to
Paleontological records indicate that global mean sea level is highly sensitive to temperature (7) and that ice sheets, the most important contributors to large-magnitude sea-level change, can respond to warming on century time scales (8), while models suggest ice sheets require millennia to approach equilibrium (9). Accordingly, sustained ... The development and analysis of the triggered case is identical to the baseline case in every way except for the relationship be-tween committed warming and the sea-level contribution from Antarctica. The Antarctic simulations used in Levermann et al.
Global sea level has been rising over the past half century...
and Antarctica are commonly considered as the largest. contributors, but these contributions do not entirely explain the observed sea-level rise1. Changes in terrestrial water storage are also likely to affect sea level3–6, but comprehensive and. ... Here, we estimate sea-level. change in response to human impacts on terrestrial water. storage by using an integrated model that simulates global. terrestrial water stocks and ows (exclusive to Greenland. and Antarctica) and especially accounts for human activities.
Global mean sea level rise, caused by ocean thermal...
‘Warm’ water from upwelling because of increased wind shear around Antarctica is also penetrating in under outlet glaciers to the West Antarctic and East Antarctic Ice Sheets. Each of these ‘warm’ waters are only 2-4 degrees Celsius, but that are doing a powerful amount of warming ... They may be fine for New Orleans and the Netherlands, but not here. Our limestone and sand substrate is much too porous and permeable. Many top scientists have concluded that global sea level may rise 15-20 feet by the end of the century. If you are planning for 4-6 feet, it will not be hard to then plan for something higher and faster.
Antarctic Ice
This end buttresses half a dozen glaciers which are now predicted to accelerate their melting, and that this ice loss alone will raise global sea level by 10 feet over coming decades (Rignot et al. ... Sea ice, of course, has no effect on sea levels, and when air temps rise further and get close to crossing the freezing point in the future, sea ice will be lost as well. We are seeing accelerating breakup of ice shelves in Antarctica, with no known way to stop the ultimate loss of the ~all of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, the third largest reservoir of ice on Earth.
1 January
Impacts of Climate Change on | Graph 4: Sea Level
Antarctica. ... Projected global sea level change. The colored lines represent different models, based on global. observations. This map is designed to emphasize regions of the Eastern United States and Caribbean that are near sea level. 1 m = 100 cm = 1000 mm.
Climate change impacts | 20th century sea level rise
areas of ice sheet melting in Antarctica. ... estimates of Global sea level rise by end of century. high semi-empirical msocdeenlasrio. rate. Based on 2012 National Climate Assessment global sea level rise scenarios + 0.27mm/yr local subsidence. Currently anticipated changes by 2100. • CO2 increase may result in ocean.
global sea level change
Controversy concerning the significance of the present rate of global sea level rise, and how it may relate to whether the "greenhouse" is here or not, is very much in the public sphere (for a few prominent examples see Cory, [1991]; Chui, [1991]). Although the present (meaning the average over the last 100 years or so) rate of rise and its interpretation is subject to a certain amount of disagreement, it is an observed fact that relative sea level is rising in most coastal regions and causing major problems just at the time when rapid coastal development is taking place.
29 February
Untitled Document
How much has global sea level fluctuated in the past? 600' lower during maximum of Wisconsin. perhaps 500 m explores the entire range. Discussion questions: What are estimates of rates of sea level increase at present, and where do they come from? Error or range of estimates? What are estimates of total increase over past 100 years for NW Europe? Do you expect the rate of sea level increase to be linear with time and why or why not? potential for catastrophic deglaciation of Antarctica.
18 March
Rate of late Quaternary ice-cap thinning on King George...
Nakada & Lambeck (1988) argue that the temporal pattern of deglaciation may explain the pattern of global sea level changes resulting from Antarctica meltwater input. Specically, the WAIS and Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet are key sectors for watching the meltwater input into the ocean, because most of the glaciers on both areas are grounded below sea level and, thus, most susceptible to global warming and consequent sea level rising.
IPCC AR5: Chapter13: Sea Level Rise
It is likely that global mean sea level will rise over 5 meters if there is a global mean temperature increase of 2 °C. While the IPCC report projects temperature increases over 2 °C, by 2100, they project SLR of only ? - 1 meters by then. Why? ... The different contributions are given from left to right as thermal expansion, glaciers, Greenland Ice Sheet, Antarctic Ice Sheet and the total contribution. The range provided for the total sea level change represents the maximum possible spread that can be obtained from the four different contributions.
Project MUSE - Sea-Level Change in the Gulf of Mexico
Changes in sea level can occur locally along as little as hundreds of meters of coastline, regionally across hundreds or thousands of kilometers, or globally; all may be important. Global sea- level change is generally referred to as eustatic change. ... Glaciers are large masses of moving ice. They can be small such as those in the mountain valleys in the Alps and Alaska or they can be very wide-spread such as those covering most of Greenland and Antarctica.
2 January
A Semi-Empirical Approach to
nderstanding global sea-level changes is a difficult physical problem, because complex mechanisms with different time scales play a role (1), including thermal expan-sion of water due to the uptake and penetration of heat into the oceans, input of water into the ocean from glaciers and ice sheets, and changed water storage on land. ... Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14473 Potsdam, Germany. E-mail: published physically based projections of ice loss from glaciers and ice caps fringing Green-land and Antarctica. For this reason, our capability for calculating future sea-level...
Global Climate Change: Research Explorer - Global Effects
Average Annual Global Number of People Flooded under Three Emissions Scenarios - One consequence of increasing temperatures is rising sea levels—which leads to flooding of coastal areas. This graph shows computer projections of the average number of people flooded each year in the 2080s in five vulnerable continental regions. ... Source: Robert Nicholls, Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University. questions about the data. I heard that a giant ice sheet recently broke off the coast of Antarctica. Did that cause sea level to rise?
15 September
Quotations on Global Warming : University of St. Thomas
Globally, the rate of sea level rise is around 1.5 millimeters per year...The primary cause of sea level rise is water expansion. It doesn't expand very much, but we have a lot of water on this blue planet, and increasing global temperatures will cause water expansion. ... Cat Lazaroff, “Arctic Sea Ice May Vanish This Century” Environment News Service, 2 Dec 2002. Researchers at the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) reported (September 1994) "the greening of Antarctica" as the ice recedes and summers lengthen.
3 March
West Antarctic Ice Sheet = 5 m global sea level
• ice in Antarctica by ~ 30 Ma. – “big white reflector” helps cool Earth. from Ruddiman, Earth’s Climate. recent events: Ice Age Earth. • repeated cycles of gradual cooling and rapid warming. • global glaciation and deglaciation. ... Annual mean temperature change, 2071 to 2100 relative to 1990: Global Average in 2085 = 3.1oC. West Antarctic Ice Sheet = 5 m global sea level. FIGURE 14.16 Clouds play an important role in the earth’s climate system. How they will respond to increasing global temperatures is not totally clear.
Forcing and Their Use in Projecting Future Sea
An experiment approximating the IPCC’s 71 RCP8.5 scenario produces first century contributions to sea level of 22.3 and 8.1 cm from 72 Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, with a range among models of 62 and 14 cm, 73 respectively. ... 430 Because the focus of SeaRISE is the Greenland or the Antarctic ice sheets’ potential 431 contributions to global sea level, the changes in ice volume reported for all experiments.
Remote Sensing 4 – Global mass changes
Which regions matter for sea level? Regional overview of mass changes The global picture. o Ice Sheets. ... Reconciling the estimates. o Community assessment o Supported by ESA and NASA o 47 participants, 26 research groups o 10 satellites, 54 total years of data. Greenland Antarctic Peninsula West Antarctica East Antarctica. Image: A. Shepherd. IMBIE – define common periods.
Burning remaining fossil fuel could cause 60-meter sea level...
“The West Antarctic Ice Sheet may already have tipped into a state of unstoppable ice loss, whether as a result of human activity or not. But if we want to pass on cities like Tokyo, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Calcutta, Hamburg and New York as our future heritage, we need to avoid a tipping in East Antarctica,” Levermann said. The team found that if global warming did not exceed the 2 degree Celsius target often cited by climate policymakers, Antarctic melting would cause sea levels to rise only a few meters and remain manageable.
12 September
Dynamic topography and long-term sea-level variations: There
© 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction. Stratigraphic analyses of seismic data from continental platforms and passive continental margins reveal global-scale sea-level vari-ations spanning a wide range of time scales (e.g., Vail et al., 1977b; Hallam, 1978; Haq et al., 1987). ... (We emphasize that we are computing sea level change driven by mantle convection alone; we are not including effects such as changes in sedimentation ux into the ocean basins or the formation of ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland.
The Economic Costs of a Rise in Sea Levels
One major concern about global warming is the impact of a rise in sea levels. The 20th century was a period of increased global temperatures and the estimate of the increase in globally averaged sea levels was 10 to 20 cm. While global temperature will probably continue to rise it is not certain that the major ice caps of Greenland and Antarctica will melt. These ice caps have generally high altitudes and now their interior levels appear to be increasing as a result of higher levels of precipitation.
5 December
Effects of Sea-Level Rise on Florida
They are right in their analysis in that regard, but in dealing with sea level rise we are principally concerned with the ice that is not already in the ocean; this is principally the ice contained in the Arctic (Greenland, Artic ice caps) and the Antarctic (Antarctica.) To complete our cup analogy, simply imagine adding extra ice cubes to a cup that is already at its rim, and you quickly can create a nasty mess. ... Projections of this scope are based on the melting of half of the ice in Antarctica, or all of the ice on Greenland, which would raise global sea levels by around twenty feet.
19 January
Impacts of Predicted Global Sea-Level
Planning for global sea level rise in oregon, USA. Forward by: Phillip Johnson, Executive Director Oregon Shores Conservation Coalition The Oregon Shores Conservation Coalition’s “Coastal Climate Change Adaptation Project” is under development as an experiment in grassroots organizing for adaptive planning for expected climate change impacts.
Sea level rise less from Greenland, more from Antarctica...
Science & Technology. State & Global. Society & Culture. Health & Wellness. ... Even after accounting for other Arctic ice and the thermal expansion of warmer water, most of the difference must have come from a melting Antarctic ice sheet, Carlson says. “The implication of our results is that West Antarctica likely was much smaller than it is today,” and responsible for much more of the sea level rise than many scientists have thought, he says.
22 September
Locally, sea level can rise because the land is sinking. Globally, it rises because the total volume of seawater is increasing. Global warming drives that in two basic ways: by warming the ocean and by melting ice on land, which adds more water. Since 1900 global sea level has risen about eight inches. ... Photograph by Maria Stenzel East Antarctica seems fairly stable. But parts of West Antarctica’s ice sheet are being undermined by a warming ocean.
A Tribute to Charles David Keeling
Sea level will increase slowly at first, as losses at the fringes of Greenland and Antarctica due to accelerating ice streams are nearly balanced by increased snowfall and ice sheet thickening in the ice sheet interiors. But as Greenland and West Antarctic ice is softened and lubricated by melt-water and as buttressing ice shelves disappear ... Global sea level extracted, via a hydraulic model, from an oxygen isotope record for the Red Sea over the past 470 thousand years (concatenates Siddall’s MD921017, Byrd, and Glacial Recovery data sets; AMS radiocarbon dating). Source: Siddall et al., Nature, 423, 853-858, 2003.
WORKSHOPS:: Keck Institute for Space Studies
Global sea level depends on a complex, inter-connected system with many components. But the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, which contain ice equivalent to 80 meters of sea level, are the most critical and most uncertain components of this system. ... It has been postulated that these two glaciers—both of which are thinning rapidly—are reacting to warm Circumpolar Deep Water that is intruding from the north, a process that could ultimately cause the collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and potentially result in 3 meters of global sea level rise.
Increasing rates of ice mass loss from the Greenland
2. Data and Methodology. [4] We use monthly GRACE gravity field solutions generated at the Center for Space Research at the University of Texas [Tapley et al., 2004], for 80 months between April 2002 and February 2009, to estimate Antarctic and Greenland mass variability. ... The combined contribution of Greenland and Antarctica to global sea level rise is accelerating at a rate of 56 ± 17 Gt/yr2 during April 2002 – February 2009, which corresponds to an equiv-alent acceleration in sea level rise of 0.17 ± 0.05 mm/yr2 during this time.
R esearch a rticles
A. RTICLES. Meltwater Pulse 1A from Antarctica as a Trigger of the Bolling-Allerod Warm Interval. Andrew J. Weaver,1* Oleg A. Saenko,1 Peter U. Clark,2 Jerry X. Mitrovica3. Meltwater pulse 1A (mwp-1A) was a prominent feature of the last deglaciation, which led to a sea-level rise of ?20 meters in less than 500 years. ... An ex-ceptionally large melting event, inferred from far-field relative sea-level records, occurred ?14,600 years before the present (yr B.P.) wherein global sea level rose by about 20 m in less than 500 years.
Last time carbon dioxide levels were this high: 15... | UCLA
8 in the online edition of the journal Science. "The last time carbon dioxide levels were apparently as high as they are today — and were sustained at those levels — global temperatures were 5 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit higher than they are today, the sea level was approximately 75 to 120 feet higher than today, there was no permanent sea ice cap in the Arctic and very little ice on Antarctica and Greenland ... By analyzing the chemistry of bubbles of ancient air trapped in Antarctic ice, scientists have been able to determine the composition of Earth's atmosphere going back as far as 800,000 years, and they have...
12 December
Global Warming and Rising Sea Levels
Climate models done by IPCC shows that the local warming over Greenland is likely to be one to three times the global average, approximately larger than 3°C and if sustained for millennia, it would lead to virtually a complete melting of the Greenland ice sheet with a resulting sea-level rise of about 7 m. Similarly, the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS). could contribute an additional six metres (20 feet) to sea level rise.
3 September
• Ozone levels over Antarctica will not return to normal for another ~50 years. There is no actual "hole" in the ozone layer, there is no location where ozone is completely absent in the stratosphere. However there are several locations where there has been a substantial reduction in the thickness of the layer. ... Doubling of CO2 concentrations would be delayed to 2100 if global emissions were frozen at current levels. Global Climate Change. • Global data on temperature, precipitation, and sea level suggest Earth has been warming over the last century. • Temperatures have increased by an average of 1oF. •
This ice sheet, as opposed to most glaciers, other Antarctic ice sheets and the Greenland ice sheet, is not landlocked but rather rests on the continental shelf below sea-level in the Weddell, Bellingshausen and Ross Seas. While the melting of Arctic sea ice will have essentially no impact on global sea-levels, because this ice is already displacing its own mass by floating on the ocean, the grounded ice sheets in Antarctica have the potential to dramatically affect sea-level through melting and/or wasting.
PIne Island Glacier
The Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) Sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is the most dramatically changing portion of Antarctica -- it is presently losing mass at a rate that accounts for about 10% of the ongoing increase in global sea level. Local and global trends suggest this contribution may increase, drawing a larger fraction of the 1.5 meters of sea level equivalent from the region on time scales that are most important to humans.
21 April
3.1 Introduction Global sea level (GSL) has been increasing...
Approximately 6 mm of sea level equivalent falls as snow on Antarctica each year, comprising the dominant term in the surface mass balance - the net accumulation of moisture – over the continent. Therefore, short- or long-term fluctuations in the annual amount of snowfall may have a substantial impact on the surface mass balance and eustatic global sea level change.
Paradise Lost
How has sea level changed in the last hundred years? To address this question we will examine historical tide gauge data from the Chesapeake Bay and other global locations using an interactive Excel spreadsheet or Excelet. ... Climatic changes in temperature can influence the volume of glacial ice (ice cover on land, such as Greenland and Antarctica) and hence, the volume of sea level; and the thermal expansion of sea water.
Tipping Earth through Glaciers
Oxygen isotopes are used in both the shells and in ice cores. Deep ice cores, such as those from Lake Vostok, Antarctica, the Greenland Ice Sheet Project, and North Greenland Ice Sheet Project can be analyzed for trapped gas, stable isotope ratios, and pollen trapped within the layers to infer past climate. ... The resulting surge of the West Antarctic ice sheet would lead to a rapid rise in global sea level.
17 June
Cochise College P | Global Warming
Estimates of future rises in sea level may not be accurate”. Antarctica has become colder over the past thirty-five years and continues to cool. (“It remains a mystery”.) Temps in Antarctica are falling by 0.7 Celsius a decade. Both green house theory and computer models predict that global warming should be more rapid in the Polar Regions than anywhere else; but in July the Antarctic experienced the coldest weather on record, says another source.
28 November
Sea-Level Changes Along the U.S. Atlantic Coast
Reconstructing Relative Sea Level. The global ice model defines the global distribution of grounded ice thickness over time. It has developed from the initial ICE-1 model, which was a low-resolution (5° x 5°) model and did not include an Antarctic component (Peltier and Andrews, 1976). This was later modified to incorporate Antarctica in ICE-2 (Wu and Peltier, 1983). The development of ICE-3G increased the resolution (2° x 2°) and reduced the variance between the data and the models by a factor of 2 over ICE-2.
The very high average elevation, about 2300 metres above sea level, of the Antarctic Ice Sheet and continuous latitudinal ring of open ocean separating Antarctica from other landmasses isolates the ice sheet from warmer latitudes to the north. ... Rohling, E.J., Grant, K., Bolshaw, M., Roberts, A.P., Siddall, M., Hemleben, C. and Kucera, M. (2009). Antarctic temperature and global sea level closely coupled over the past five glacial cycles. Nature Geoscience, 2, 500-504. Climate change science compendium.
ICE :: Antarctica | 13. Level of Strategic Interest: multilateral
(If one assumes continued population growth, on a global level, many of the activities described in this case study could lead to conflict among states. From bioprospecting to fisheries, eco-tourism to mineral extraction, the way in which states mitigate population growth will determine the likelihood of conflict and ... In short, relevance is defined as cases that deal directly with Antarctica or whose central issue deals with either overfishing or biodiversity loss. 15. Related ICE and TED Cases. Related cases (3 searches were conducted: field=sea species loss, field=general habitat loss, keyword=Antarctic).
11 August
What would happen to global sea level under conditions of...
What happens to global sea level during a major interglacial (i.e. warm / melting) climate? D. What happens to land surface elevation at convergent tectonic boundaries (i.e. subduction zones), especially where accretionary tectonics is prevalent? ... 11. If global sea level is rising at a rate of 5 mm/yr, and an active tectonic coastline is experiencing uplift at a rate of 5 mm/yr, what will be the net relative rate of sea level change at this location?
Materials | global climate change, sea level, and louisiana
Students will learn that the rise and fall of sea level can occur through various mechanisms. Background. You don?t need just an ice melt event in Antartica to make sea level rise in Louisiana. Increase in sea water temperature can also raise sea level (Remember what water molecules do when cooled). Procedure. 1. Place the rod in the flask and mark the intial depth of the water. 2. Next, record the water temperature.
State of the | Sea level
Global warming is also apparent from decreases in the mass of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets (ice attached to land), net decrease in glacier volumes, large reductions in Arctic sea-ice extent, higher global sea level and reductions in snow cover. ... This net increase represents the sum of contrasting regional trends around Antarctica. The overall increase in Antarctic sea-ice extent has been linked to several possible drivers, including freshening of surface waters due to increased precipitation and the enhanced melting of ice shelves, and changes in atmospheric circulation resulting in greater sea-ice dispersion.
Lesson 1. – Overview and Research | The Antarctic Divergence
The snowfall has accumulated over several million years to make Antarctica's average elevation 2.5 miles above sea level, making it the highest continent. ... Because it is so cold, the snow never melts.) 2. What types of changes would Global Warming have on the food chain? 3. If you were to follow the Scott or Amundsen path to the South Pole what type of personnel would you want to accompany you through Antarctica? (Ex.
Sea Level Rise
A vast majority of individual mountain glaciers and ice caps are known to have been retreating, some very rapidly, and their melt and consequent runoff contribute to sea level rise. Although scientific evidence is increasing that on balance, both the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are shrinking, it is still uncertain what impact this will have on the world’s population. If all the ice melted or otherwise entered into the oceans, global sea level would rise by approximately 70 meters.
Global Climate Change and the Risks to Coastal
A mass deficit reflects a loss that exceeds the gain during the same time period. Id. “ [E]ven small imbalances between input and output will have a substantial impact on global sea level.” David G. Vaughn, How Does the Antarctic Ice Sheet Affect Sea Level Rise?, 308 SCIENCE 1877 (June 24, 2005). ... of the 21st century, producing an open polar sea. Ice in the Antarctic is also decreasing, by as much as 36. cubic miles of ice annually. See Isabella Velicogna & John Wahr, Measurements of Time-Variable Gravity. Show Mass Loss in Antarctica, 311 SCIENCE 1754 (Mar.
Is compelling : g lobal temperature rise
The evidence for rapid climate change is compelling: sea level rise. Republic of Maldives: Vulnerable to sea level rise Global sea level rose about 17 centimeters (6.7 inches) in the last century. ... Rctic sea ice. The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have decreased in mass. Data from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment show Greenland lost 36 to 60 cubic miles of ice per year between 2002 and 2006, while Antarctica lost about 36 cubic miles of ice between 2002 and 2005.
Mediterranean Sea: new insights into MIS 3 sea-level variability
Blunier, T. and Brook, E. J.: Timing of Millennial-Scale Climate Change in Antarctica and Greenland During the Last Glacial Pe-riod, Science, 291, 109–112, 2001. Bond, G. and Lotti, R.: Iceberg discharges into the North Atlantic on millennial time scales during the last deglaciation, Science, 267, 1005–1010, 1995. ... Rohling, E. J., Grant, K., Bolshaw, M., Roberts, A. P., Siddall, M., Hemleben, C., and Kucera, M.: Antarctic temperature and global sea-level closely coupled over the past ve glacial cycles, Nat.
UMass Boston Scientists Predict Heat, Sea Level Rise...
James Hanson et all released a study showing average global sea level rise more likely to be 20 feet by 2100. Since the U.S. northern Atlantic coast sea level rise is indicated to be much higher than the global average for a variety of reasons, Boston will be wiped out completely, as well as many surrounding communities by century’s end. ... It comes down to how quickly the ice sheets (Antarctica and Greenland) will melt, not whether they will melt, and that is unknown.
18 June
404 | The University of Virginia
Global. Health & Medicine. Research.
15 December
South Pacific sea level monitoring | Global Education
As human numbers increase and fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas are used and forests cut down, the global climate will continue to change through the ‘enhanced greenhouse effect’. Scientists have linked this change to rising sea levels, higher temperatures, greater variability in rainfall patterns, more intense tropical cyclones, and changes in the onset of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The small island states of the Pacific are extremely vulnerable to the projected effects of climate change.
12 November
Rapid and 'Unstoppable' - West Antarctica is Melting
Global warming is linked to rapid melting of the massive West Antarctic Ice Sheet, which could cause sea levels to rise more than 10 feet in coming centuries. ... “If we have committed to 3 meters or so of globally averaged sea-level rise from West Antarctica, even if delayed by many centuries, the costs are sobering, but are not as high as the costs of also committing to loss of Greenland’s ice and parts of East Antarctica’s ice,” Alley said.
17 May
z2011 September Connections - InterChange Newsletter...
Could a collapse of one of the world's great ice sheets raise sea level by a catastrophic amount in the next 100 years? Glaciologists have examined such a possibility since it was first proposed by John Mercer in 1978. In the nearly four decades since then, glaciologists have witnessed and documented a global retreat of mountain glaciers, ice shelf collapse in Antarctica and Canada, widespread surface melting in Greenland, and accelerating discharge of outlet glaciers draining both the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets.
10 August
Sea-level Rise | Global warming will result in
Global warming causes sea level to rise for several reasons. First, as water warms it expands, taking up more space. Second, as mountain glaciers around the world melt, this water flows to the oceans. And third, the two large polar ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica are now melting, although how much and how fast they will melt is not well known.Thus current projections of future sea-level rise don’t fully account for changes in the large ice sheets, and future sea-level rise could be greater than the assumptions used in this study.
eric hiatt /Antarctica Links | Climate and Sea level
Climate and Sea level: Antarctic climate page from the British Antarctic Survey. NASA's SeaWIFS Satellite Images of Oceanic Productivity. ... NASA's West Antarctic Ice Sheet Initiative. General Information: NASA's Global Change Master Directory. The America Museum of Natural History Antarctica page. Here is a great site about snow crystal formation and snow flakes.
6 September
Research In Antarc/ca
If the ice keeps melting that means that our sea level will increase and we could potentially have flooded coastal areas. Also we could lose some animal species not only in Antarctica but around the world. Water temperatures would change and possibly salinity levels creating this big change in the oceans, so big that some animals may not be able to adapt to the new lifestyle and possibly die out. ... "Global Warming Impacts in the Arctic and Antarctic."
John Englander responds to NASA’s latest report about...
Global sea level is now rising about 3 mm a year, about an eighth of an inch a year, but NASA measurements show the rate of sea level rise is accelerating rapidly when looked at on a scale of decades. Presently the dry soil absorption is reducing global sea level rise by roughly 20%, or about half a millimeter — roughly the thickness of a few sheets of paper, barely measurable. That effect is both temporary (as the article stated), and relatively immaterial in the larger picture of the ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica melting and accelerating.
29 February
Sea level changes caused by the melting of continental glaciers (Antarctica and Greenland) are some of the gravest concerns associated with global warming. Why we know that sea level is changing because vast amounts of data are now available. The observable effects of sea level changes are preserved everywhere around the world's ocean basins.
27 August
Antarctica Ice Melting
corresponding water volume. c. The net calculation is simply a multiplication of the ice volumes by 0.9 4. Calculate the sea-level-rise answers by dividing the water volumes determined in #3 by the global surface-water area determined in #1, thereby spreading the effect of the ice sheet’s water throughout the expanse of the Earth’s surface-water area. ... 9. Are there any other factors which might account for rising sea levels? Greenland is another large glacier. Ice Sheet Antarctica Greenland.
Geologists view the theory of Plate Tectonics
Australia lost its inland sea 70mya ago when the global sea level was high because the subducting slab was sinking farther into the mantel, losing its pull on the Australian plate. Alt the same time, Australia was starting to drift away from this subducting zone (see Fig 2). The remains of this slab are now in between Australia and Antarctica (Australian-Antarctic Discordance) (Moresi, 2003). However, if Australia had not been under the influence of the subducting plate, Australia would have had no inland sea at the time the global sea levels were low...
Ozone depletion vs. Global
Global sea level was about 125 meters below today's sea level at the last glacial maximum about 20,000 years ago. 4. Florida area with a sea-level rise of 17 ft, estimated to occur if Western Antarctic Ice Sheet collapsed.
Probabilistic sea-level rise hazard analysis
The output of the PSLRHA framework could be a Global Sea-Level Rise Hazard Map (GSLRHM) that can be used for Performance-Based Sea-Level Rise Engineering (PB-SLRE). Ultimately, informed decisions are enabled through GSLRHM and PBSLRE by the probabilistic framework that incorporates sea-level rise hazard based on multiple scenarios, from global and regional/local projections by multiple modelers, for the time frame and design/policy of interest.
Habitat / Site / Sea turtle nesting.
7 June
Antarctica - a critical part of the Earth system
Keywords: Antarctic, climate change, sea level, krill, technology, data. Introduction. Antarctica is the fifth largest continent after Africa, Asia, North and South America. ... Sea level rise Average global sea level rise is about 3.1 mm a-1 (IPCC 2013). The most recent estimates suggest that the Antarctic is responsible for 0.40 ±0.20 mm a-1, with most of this contribution coming from the Antarctic Peninsula and from the West Antarctic Icesheet.
The continued addition of fresh water due disequlibrium between galacial ice and global temperatures. The components of Sea Level Changes ... Dominant source of uncertainty is this expectation: Higher temperatures are also likely to increase the amount of snowfall over central Greenland and Antarctica. The higher snowfall is likely to offset part of the sea level rise from other factors because the additional snow is composed of water that would otherwise be in the ocean.
11 March
Developing a Method for
Many recent studies have concentrated on the surface mass-balance (SMB) and mass changes of the Antarctic ice sheet [2]. For an enhanced understanding of Earth’s climate changes, as well as the polar regions, which are capable of contributing significantly to global sea-level change [3], these studies are of vital importance [2] [3] [4] [5]. West Antarctica, in particular, is seriously lacking in point based measurements of the accumulation rate, whether through snow pit or ice core analysis [4]. Due to the sparse data points.
Measurements of Time-Variable
overall contribution of the Antarctic ice sheet to global sea-level change thus depends on the balance between. ... There are two types of geophysical contam-ination: one caused by signals outside Antarctica and the other from Antarctic signals unrelated to snow and ice. Leakage from outside Antarctica occurs because the averaging function extends beyond the boundaries of Antarctica. The leak-age is increased because our omission of l 0 1 terms causes the averaging function to have a small-amplitude tail that extends around the globe.
Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport
Arab Academy for Science Technology & Maritime Transport (AASTMT) a regional organization operated by Arab League and known for its undergraduate & graduate programs in Maritime Transportation, Engineering, Management, Computing & Informa...
7 August
372 Global Climate Change, Ch.6
The 100 million year ago curve is based on geologic evidence input to a curve indicating mean zonal (temperatures. This is compared with modern mean temperature variations with latitude. How would you explain the results on this diagram? Why is Antarctica so much colder today? ... Sea Level changes -- marine transgressions and regressions, especially along continental shelves -- How do these affect regional and global temperatures?
23 May
Global warming: sea level
Global warming: sea level.
22 April
Sea Level Rise: How Do They Roll?
"Analysis of air bubbles trapped in an Antarctic ice core extending back 800,000 years [showed that] . . . [o]ver this long period[,] . . . the atmospheric carbon. dioxide concentration [varied] within a range of about 170 to 300 parts per. ... The Fourth Assessment Report predicts a global average sea level rise between 0.18 and 0.59 meters by the end of the century.25 As "the IPCC study did not consider increased melt water contributions from Greenland and Antarctica, these estimates are considered conservative."26.
Sea Level Change | Stable crust Global signal
OCauses of sea level change O Temporal (time) scales of sea level changes O Climate-related sealevel change and oxygen isotope stages O Eustatic and relative sea levels O Evidence of sealevel change O Sedimentary records of sealevel changes. ... Eustasy refers to global sea level independent of local factors. It is the measure of distance between sea surface and a fixed datum (e.g., centre of the earth). It is variable because of the tectonic behaviour of sedimentary fill (subsidenc and uplift).
Oops. This is an invalid URL. If you didn't type this in to the address bar, you may have clicked on a bad link. Return to Lesley University Home Page.
3 January
Global Climate Change, Sea Level Rise and the
Global Climate Change predictions are for a significantly warmer future earth and sea level rise acceleration. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that in the coming century, sea level will. accelerate with an average rate ranging from 28 cm/century to 42 cm/century compared to the present eustatic. (world wide) rate of approximately 20 cm/century. Recognizing that beaches generally retreat (erode) in.
Why a Different Approach Is Required If Global
Sea Level and Global Temperatures by Epoch 9. Global average temps compared to present (C) Sea level compared to present (meters) Max rate of sea level rise (meters/century). Interglacial periods max. (- 120kybp) Hansen (2007) +1 Rohling (2007) +2. ... Our concern that [business as usual greenhouse gas] scenarios would cause large sea-level rise this century... differs from estimates ofthe IPCC (2001, 2007), which fore-sees little or no contribution to twenty-first century sea level raise from Greenland and Antarctica.
temperature | Sea levels over the last 150,000 years
By the Oligocene, 34-24 million years ago, glaciers started forming in Antarctica. The growth of ice sheets led to a dropping of the sea level. ... Joe Buchdahl, Pleistocene Glacials and Interglacials, in Global Climate Change Student Guide. The dip in sea levels from 120 to 20 thousand years ago is due to the last Ice Age. Greenland temperatures over the last 130,000 years. These temperatures are estimated by the amount of oxygen-18 in an ice core taken from Camp Century, Greenland.
The global commons: disputed and encroached areas
There is geological evidence of mineral resources, including gas and oil, offshore the coast of Antarctica. The probable locations are the Ross Sea, the Weddell Sea Basin, the Amundsen Sea continental margin, and the Bellinghausen Sea continental margin. ... Present developments on national, regional, and global levels. Confronted with practical problems of discharging their respective responsibilities, in the context of a new ocean regime under the 1982 Convention, various UN agencies undertook moderate institutional adaptations.
18 June
ATS 150
7. Watch the video titled “Antarctic Ice Sheets” on the class website. a. Explain in a few sentences why these two glaciers are particularly vulnerable to melting, and how scientists know this. b. If Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica and Totten Glacier in East Antarctica melt or calve into the Ocean, by how much would global sea level rise?
Louisiana wetlands struggling with sea-level... | Tulane News
The researchers used an unconventional method to measure sea-level change that integrated information from different data sources. They analyzed measurements of shallow subsidence rates at 274 sites across the coast and combined these with published GPS-measurements of deeper subsidence rates. Adding published satellite observations of the rise of the sea surface in the Gulf of Mexico, they were able to calculate how rapidly sea level is rising with respect to the coastal wetland surface.
14 March
GLOBAL WARMING | 2. Global Sea-level
2. For the past Century, Scientists have observed a warming trend in Global temperature and a. rise in sea level. ... 5. The retreat of Glaciers and the warming of the Tundra Permafrost is clear evidence. A. startling 2.5 C warming in Antarctica has been reported. 6. Evidence from air trapped in 250,000 year old ice cores reveal that the level of Greenhouse. gases in the atmosphere has varied in the past but these variations have occurred.
24 August
Earth update : data
There is much concern that if the Earth is warming up, then the West Antarctic Ice Sheet might melt and disintegrate. If this were to happen, the sea level could rise as much as 20m affecting coastal communities worldwide. During the last ice age, 18,000 years ago, the water taken from the oceans to build up the ice sheets on land in North America and Europe produced a drop in sea level of about 125 m. Therefore, many countries are interested in determining whether Antarctica is currently growing, melting, or is in equilibrium and how it would respond to global climate.
28 February
Tide Gauges and Global Sea Level
Select global base map. Open database with locations of the tide gauges. ... Plot: especially Color code by DB field and Color code by numeric field like the length of the tide records or the rate of sea level rise.
29 July
Helicon Space - Unauthorized
You're not allowed to access this item for some reason. The most likely reason is that the administrator of the space has not given you permission.
21 December
Abrupt Climate Change
11. SAP 3.4: Abrupt Climate Change. • Although no ice-sheet model is currently capable of capturing the glacier speedups in Antarctica or Greenland that have been observed over the last decade, including these processes in models will very likely show that IPCC AR4 projected sea level rises for the end of the 21st ... 1.2). An increase in global sea level largely reflects a contribution from water expansion from warming, and from the melting of land ice which dominates the actual addition of water to the oceans. Over the last century, the global average sea level rose at a rate of ~1.7 ± 0.5 millimeters per year (mm yr-1).
Antarctica Notebook - Catholic University
Global warming in the world around Antarctica has increased the winds around the continent, which has pushed warmer water up underneath the ice shelves and is melting them much faster. Just a one meter rise in the world's sea level will have a devastating impact on many of our coastal cities, including those in the U.S. We should be concerned. Pope Benedict XVI, labeled by some as a "conservative" German theologian, is now being given the "liberal" title of the "Green" Pope.
20 January
project: Error...
There was an error: Your request cannot be completed as we cannot verify how you got here. Please close EVERY browser window; then restart the Instructional Architect again. If you have any questions about our policies or this web site, contact us vi...
5 February
Sea Level Rise from Global Warming
This depiction of recent sea level rise is from Bruce C. Douglas , "Global Sea Rise: A Redetermination". Surveys in Geophysics 18: 279,(1997).
15 April
Climate Change and Rising Sea Level
v Sea Level ~ Constant for last 6,000 years {All of Recorded History} v Global Average sea level has risen 178mm (7in) in the past 100 years[2] v CB Rising at a rate of ~ 75mm (3 in.) per Decade (2002 to 2011) [9]. v Recent Data Indicate this Level MAY INCREASE SIGNIFICANTLY. ... v Ocean Thermal Expansion best estimated v Antarctica Melting v Greenland Melting v Other Glaciers Melting v Gulf stream Changes v Sinking land. Come High Water: Sea Level Rise and Chesapeake Bay.
Using the Past to Predict Global Warming’s Future
Raymo, a College of Arts & Sciences research professor of earth sciences, and her colleagues are trying to predict just how high the oceans will rise as global warming melts polar ice sheets. It so happens that three million years ago, the level of carbon dioxide—the most influential gas, atmospherically speaking—was about the same as today. ... Research like Raymo’s has assumed greater urgency as indicators point to unexpectedly dire ice melts in Greenland and Antarctica. The New York Timesrecently reported that during the 20th century, sea levels rose a mere seven inches or so, a rate scientists thought might...
9 March
Antarctica – Imagined Geographies Public Events, Free to All. March 29 – Communications Building Room 1032, 12-1:15 pm A Global Media Research Center event Lecture: Coming Climate Crisis? Consider the Past, Beware the Big Fix-Roles and Challenges to Science Reporting and Policy-making, Claire Parkinson PhD, NASA. ... Terra Antarctica (2009; 49"): This National Geographic-sponsored exploration and film provides a unique look at Antarctica - from sea level, via sea kayak, sailboat, sea plane and by foot.
IDS 102
IDS 102 Sea-level Changes. Each day the level of the oceans varies with tidal forces and storms, however these variations do not create long-term changes in the level of the ocean. One of the hypothesized long-term effects of global warming is that the level of the oceans will rise and flood coastlines around the world. ... Although we cannot perceive this change, the land in some places around the world is sinking due to the weight of sediment pushing the Earth’s crust downward. For a moment, assume that global sea level is not changing. If you made sea-level observations at a specific location over time, how would the sea...
Browse Profiles: 8 showing - CSU Fresca
Global Navigation. Home. Browse.
29 April
Antarctica - MicrobeWiki
Due to the increasing climate change due to human effects such as global warming, Antarctica is sometimes used as a “global warming barometer.” Because of the increasing temperatures, several types of mosses and lichens are able to grow further and further south as increasing periods of thaw occur. ... Approximately 61 percent of all fresh water on the Earth is held in the Antarctic ice sheet, an amount equivalent to 70 m of water in the world's oceans. In East Antarctica, the ice sheet rests on a major landmass, but in West Antarctica the bed can extend to more than 2,500 m below sea level.
6 March
The small print
As an example, when the Royal Society addresses the long-term rise in Antarctic sea ice it says that ‘changes in winds and in the ocean seem to be dominating the patterns of sea ice change in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica’. ... That said, the possible acceleration of ocean heat content accumulation and sea level rise are close to the limits of our ability to detect and the values involved cannot be reconciled to each other. Depend-ing on the time scale, other observational datasets are still more equivocal: global sea ice levels declined for several decades but are now above their long-term mean.
Dr. Marshall Shepard | Sea Ice Trends
Just how unusual is today’s CO2 level? Recent global temperature trend. Spatial pattern of warming. Opening the northeast passage. The "Ice-Albedo" feedback trend. Sea Ice Trends. What About the Melting of Ice on Greenland? ... - Interactions between different elements of the climate system (e.g., ice on Greenland and Antarctica and future sea level rise). - Future CO2 emissions are unknown. - Potential impacts of mitigation technologies.
Recent and future
Human-induced sea-level rise associated with global warming has become a critical issue for coastal researchers and planners. Flooding of lowland areas, dune erosion, beach recession and increased hazard from storm events are all expected to result from higher sea levels (IPCC 2007). This, combined with rapidly increasing human populations in the coastal zone (Hart & Bryan 2008), places more infrastructure at risk from these hazards.
Se maps project | natural events might change sea level.
INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS: Students will recognize the role that climate change is expected to play in future global sea-level rise. Environmental factors (melting ice, thermal expansion, etc.) associated with sea-level rise will be compared in terms of relative impact. Economic and ecological impacts of sea-level rise on the South Carolina coast will be highlighted.
Read the Web :: NELL KnowledgeBase Browser
Links to the page contain: global_internet_society....
19 October
SEA Semester | Study Abroad with SEA Semester: Ocean...
accelerated rise in sea levels, demonstrating that the Antarctic ice cap was responsible for up to 50% of these increases. ... It is estimated that Tahiti will be an atoll in about two million years (its highest elevation being 2,241 m) and will look like the Gambier Islands[13]. Today, the subsidence rate is estimated at 0.25 mm/year, and Tahiti consequently observes a relative sea-level rise independent of global trends, making the addition of global sea-level rise a greater concern.
21 May
Long Island Sound Sentinel Monitoring for Climate Change...
For example, while IPCC AR4 (2007) expresses a high level of confidence in observed and predicted changes in global average temperature (for all emissions scenarios), sea level rise projections are more uncertain. While scientific observations indicate that global sea level rise is occurring and will continue to occur, the magnitude of future sea level rise will depend heavily on rates of Greenland and Antarctica ice sheet melt, changes in ocean circulation due to additional freshwater inflow (from melting ice), and naturally-cyclic hemispheric climate patterns.
12 November
Average Global Sea-Level Pressures
Average Sea-Level Pressure for January and July (based on 1979-1998).
25 August
Summary of Global Warming Observations
Note: A few areas of the globe have not warmed in recent decades: some areas of Southern Hemisphere and parts of Antarctica. Total atmospheric water vapor has likely increased several percent per decade over many regions in NH. some subtropical regions are experiencing more dry spells. ... •Decreasing snow cover and sea-ice amounts in NH. No significant trends in Antarctic sea-ice are apparent. •Global mean sea-level rise during 20th century has been observed to be 1.0-2.0 mm per year.
13 January
IT Is all about thermal energy storage
2.3 Heat Accumulation in Water The heat accumulation in ocean water was estimated from the global sea level rise (GSLR), compiled by the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level [PSMSL, 2007]. The GSLR is a result of various factors; e.g. melting land ice, thermal expansion, increasing ... The main uncertainty is whether the ice mass of Antarctica is decreasing or increasing, i.e. causes the sea level to rise or not [Harvey, 2000]. If the mass of ice on Antarctica increases, the total melt heat will be correspondingly less. The energy required to melt glaciers and permafrost, totaling 50 mm sea level rise, is 16.8.1014 kWh.
The Regional Impacts of Global Sea Level Rise While...
Global sea level rise is occurring at an increasing rate. The major driving forces behind this change are thermal expansion and melting ice sheets, mainly in Antarctica and Greenland. ... Most researchers predict that the behavior of the massive Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets will define how sea level rise occurs over the next century.37 Antarctica and Greenland hold over 90% (by volume) of the ice on earth and, through recent melting, contributed 40% (by volume) of global sea ice melt from 1996 to 2006.38.
print job
Links to the page contain: Strong cellularity and global asymptotic stability....
A fter assessing decades of climate data
Warming Is Unequivocal The report concludes that it is “unequivocal” that Earth’s climate is warming, “as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global mean sea level.” The report also confirms that the current atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and methane, two important heat-trapping gases, “exceeds by far the natural range over the last 650,000 years.”
Climate change expert to investigate rising sea levels in the...
Rising sea levels as a result of global warming could seriously impact the picturesque Maldive Islands, according to University of Notre Dame Australia academic, Dr Michael O’Leary. Dr O’Leary is one of six delegates from around the world invited on a three-week expedition to the Maldives. ... Dr O’Leary’s research background is in using past sea levels as a proxy to understand how the polar ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica have waxed and waned with changing temperatures, causing the oceans to increase and decrease their volume.
22 November
BP Climate FAQs
Mass loss from the Antarctic Peninsula glaciers and from West Antarctica “is probably large enough to outweigh mass gains in East Antarctica and to make the total Antarctic sea level contribution positive.” ... Rohling, E.J., Grant, K., Bolshaw, M., Roberts, A.P., Siddall, M., Hemleben, C. and Kucera, M., (2009) "Antarctic Temperature and Global Sea Level Closely Coupled over the Past Five Glacial Cycles", Nature Geoscience, Vol. 2, No. 7, July, pp. 500-504.
15 November
Diving Under the Big-Ice: Bridging Engineering and Science
Their disintegration is predicted to cause irreversible retreat of some of the most vulnerable areas of the Antarctic potentially resulting in meters to global sea level rise. Coupling this with recent collapse of polar ice shelves and the predicted 33 ± 9% reduction of sea ice area by 2100 around much of Antarctica emphasizes the urgent need to better understand and predict the response of the ocean-ice system to climate change.
Impacts of Sea Level Rise and
According to the IPCC 2007, global sea level rise relative to 1980–1999 will range from 0.28 m to 0.43 m by the end of the twenty-first century depending on future greenhouse gas concentrations. ... 2007). If recently observed increases in ice discharge from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are considered, this would add another 0.05 m to 0.11 m rise for the worst-case scenario (IPCC 2007; Meehl et al. 2007). You will choose the two most extreme values for your projection: 0.28 m and 1.12 m (0.43 m + 0.58 m margin of error + 0.11 m rise due to glacial melt).
LSGI Distinguished Lecture Series
Remote Sensing for Antarctic Ice Sheet and Global Sea Level Monitoring. Prof.
Investigating climate change | SUNY Oswego
Students in the Antarctica Global Laboratory can choose to work with Oswego's Paul Tomascak on Paulet Island, where they have a unique opportunity to study volcanic materials of more recent vintage. Left: Satellite images taken over the past decade showing the rapid disintegration of the Larson ice shelf. The geography of Paulet Island, the youngest of the James Ross Island Volcanic Group, exposes students to expanses of lava flows and volcanic ejecta that can serve as important clues to understanding proper stratigraphic sequencing caused by sea-level changes.
29 February
Global Sea Level 1. Long-Term Change: Paleoclimate Data...
Global sea level extracted, via a hydraulic model, from an oxygen isotope record for the Red Sea over the past 470 kyr (concatenates Siddall’s MD921017, Byrd, & Glacial Recovery data sets; AMS radiocarbon dating). Source: Siddall et al., Nature, 423, 853-858, 2003. Ice sheet forcing ? (sea level)2/3 GHGs = CO2 + CH4 + N2O (0.15 forcing of CO2 + CH4). ... CO2,CH4 and estimated global temperature (Antarctic ?T/2 in ice core era) 0 = 1880-1899 mean. Source: Hansen, Clim.
Remotely Sensed Sea Level Change, 1992-2012
Global mean sea level change is the outcome of two processes on the volume taken by the oceans on the earth's surface. ... Salt water has a higher density than fresh water, so it takes less volume; the Atlantic has a higher level of salinity than the Pacific. The second process involve the exchange of water between oceanic masses and other water reservoirs, namely polar ice caps and ice sheets. An increase in the global temperature involves a release of additional water from these reservoirs into the oceans, increasing their mass.
11 December
Global Climate Change, U.S. Interests, and Vulnerable Nations
Receding ice is a visible manifestation of global warming. In the Antarctic, satellite data show that unusually warm air masses have begun pushing southward to within 300 miles of the South Pole, remaining long enough to melt snow across expanses the size of California (Revkin 2007d). ... Because floating ice displaces water in the same manner as a ship, melting sea ice does not cause ocean levels to rise, but melting glaciers do. New dynamics of glacial melting provide the most startling adumbration of the likelihood of rising sea levels due to global warming.
Error 404 - Document Not Found | | CSUSM
7 October
Sea-Levels are Rising (…and rising) « From Kyoto to...
Global warming has already begun to impact our sea levels, and is projected to have an impact in the future. According to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC, the sea-level is predicted to rise between .5 and 1.2m by 2100. ... Click here to watch a visual of the sea level rising across the world as temperature increases–> Sea Level Rise. Scientists specifically are concerned with the Greenland and Antarctic continental ice sheets. Why are they concerned, and how realistic are their concerns?
25 January
Environmental Geology
a 1.5–6°C (2.6?10.2°F) increase in average global temp • Significant rise of sea level and melting of glacial ice due to the increase in temp (warmer oceans “expand” and glacial melt water adds to the volume) • The number of retreating glaciers accelerating in many areas of the world • Global warming produces sea level rise, as a result. ... – Greenland ice sheet is melting at an increasing rate; Antarctic ice sheet seems to be stable overall (East Antarctica).
??????_?????? | CU Sea Level Blog
Global mean sea level rise estimated from satellite altimetry provides a strong constraint on climate variability and change and is expected to accelerate as the rates of both ocean warming and cryospheric mass loss increase over time. In stark contrast to this expectation however, current altimeter products show the rate of sea level rise to have decreased from the first to second decades of the altimeter era.
15 January
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill - Rejected...
The request was rejected. Attempted access from malicious IP address: IP Reputation Category: Scanners. If you think this is a mistake please contact the Help Desk at 962-HELP for assistance.
30 November
Changes in three important quantities—global temperature, sea level and snow cover in the Northern Hemi-sphere [see box on page 68]—all show evidence of warming, although the details vary. The pre-vious IPCC assessment reported a warming trend of 0.6 ± 0.2 degree Celsius over the period 1901 to 2000. ... The properties of the climate system include not just familiar concepts of averages of temper-ature, precipitation, and so on but also the state of the ocean and the cryosphere (sea ice, the great ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica, glaciers, snow, frozen ground, and ice on lakes and rivers).
Two Kainozoic meteorite structures were discovered during the study of coastal seas of Antarctica. The first structure, the Ross Crater, is giant "saucer", a hollow in crystalline basement of Antarctic plate, more 600 km in diameter and some 4 km deep - Challenger basin [1]. We had found allogenous and autigenous breccias on core photos of DSDP, site 270 [2], and later founded signs of shock metamorphism in thin sections.
Fuzzy vulnerability assessment model of coastal areas
important is breaking up of ice shelves around Antarctica and Greenland (e.g. Larsen B) which allow the glaciers behind them to flow faster increasing the flow into the ocean.(IPCC 2007aA). 2.1.3 Global projections There is no agreed pattern for the longer-term regional distribution of projected sea-level rise. This is because local trends associated with decadal variability will be superimposed on the slowly increasing global-mean sea level.
Antarctica could be headed for major... | University of California
All told, Antarctica’s glaciers are the size of the United States and Mexico combined, and they contain enough water to raise the world’s sea level by 180 feet. ... The big question that remains is how fast melting will occur. Harwood said the ANDRILL findings emphasize the fragility of ice shelves and the urgency of taking action on a global scale. “The models simulate thresholds, points of no return,” he said. “It’s good for policymakers to know how fast we have to get off this train or turn it in a new direction.”
22 October
Probabilistic Sea-Level Rise
Impact of articial reservoir water impoundment on global sea level. Science 320(5873), 212–214. Church, J. A. and N. J. White (2006). A 20th century acceleration in global sea-level rise. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L01602. Cornell, C. A. (1968). ... Recommendations for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis: Guidance on uncertainty and use of experts. Technical report, Washington, D.C. Vermeer, M. and S. Rahmstorf (2009). Global sea level linked to global tem-perature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(51), 21527–21532.
Environmental, social and economic aspects of global climate...
Global sea levels could rise by more than 20 feet with the loss of shelf ice in Greenland and Antarctica, devastating coastal areas worldwide. ... The Arctic, because of the impacts of high rates of projected warming on natural systems and human communities, Africa, because of low adaptive capacity and projected climate change impacts, Small islands, where there is high exposure of population and infrastructure to projected climate change impacts, Asian and African megadeltas, due to large populations and high exposure to sea level rise, storm surges, and.
Is Existing International Environmental Law Adequate in
› Sea levels could rise even more if the big ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica melt faster. Sea Level Rise and its Impact on Small Island and Low Lying Developing Countries. ... › Given mid–level scenarios for global warming emissions, the Maldives is projected to experience sea level rise on the order of 1.5 feet (half a meter)—and to lose some 77 percent of its land area—by around the year 2100. If sea level were instead to rise by 3 feet (1 meter), the Maldives could be almost completely inundated by about 2085.
Meeting Community Needs Through IRIS and UNAVCO Polar...
Polar seismic & geodetic science. he importance of understanding the Arctic’s and Ant- led to a net global sea-level increase of 1.7 ± 0.5 mm/. ... in both the NSF/OPP research goals and the National Re- increase to ~4 mm/yr by 2090 under current emissions. search Council report “Future of Science Opportunities scenarios (IPCC, 2007). in Antarctica and the Southern Oceans” (National Acade- Current eustatic sea level rise predictions are based.
Draft: D o not quote or cite without permission
(2009) conclude that it is likely that global sea level during this period peaked at more than 8 m higher than today's level. SLR of this extent is likely to have required major melting of both the GIS and the WAIS. ... Firstly, Kriegler et al. (2009) asked experts to assess, inter alia, the likelihood of passing a tipping point, by 2200, where (i) the GIS would begin to move to "an alternative state that is largely ice-free" and (ii) the WAIS would disintegrate towards a state where "West Antarctica becomes an archipelago".
??????_?????? | CU Sea Level Blog
Global mean sea level rise estimated from satellite altimetry provides a strong constraint on climate variability and change and is expected to accelerate as the rates of both ocean warming and cryospheric mass loss increase over time. In stark contrast to this expectation however, current altimeter products show the rate of sea level rise to have decreased from the first to second decades of the altimeter era.
18 January
Chapter 2
2.10 By how much would global sea level rise if both the Greenland and Ice-landic ice sheets were to entirely melt? Solution: Based on the information presented in Table 2.2, the combuned. ... Extrapolating ftom that result it can be inferred that the metting of both the Greenland and antarctic ice sheets would cayse global sea level to rise by 11.6 ? 7 = 79 m.
Unit - University of Canberra
Links to the page contain: Global Perspectives on Heritage Management (8942) - 3 cp, Level 2....
1 September
Snow chemistry across Antarctica
Group meeting on nitrate sources in Antarctica and Greenland. In Delmas, R.J., ed. Ice core studies of global biogeochemical cycles. Berlin, etc., Springer-Verlag, 247–248. (NATO ASI Series I: Global Environmental Change 30.) Curran, M.A.J., T.D. van Ommen and V. Morgan. ... Xiao, C., P.A. Mayewski, D. Qin, Z. Li, M. Zhang and Y. Yan. 2004. Sea level pressure variability over the southern Indian Ocean inferred from a glaciochemical record in Princess Elizabeth Land, east Antarctica. J. Geophys.
A Thematic Synopsis of An Inconvenient Truth
Species Loss and Disease Vectors (162-175) A review of species endangered due to global warming followed by a description of the threat to marine life due to changes in the oceans’ chemistry followed by an overview of the increased risk that new types of disease will emerge. Melting Ice Caps II: Antarctica, Greenland, and Rising Sea Levels (176-209) The segment opens with an example of how the increase in temperature has possibly affected life in Antarctica: the melting of the ice shelves may be causing the decline of the Emperor penguin population...
E. Land-Weber Exhibition: Iceberg Reflection in Dark Sea...
Iceberg Reflection in Dark Sea, Antarctica.
22 February
There’s a giant crack in an Antarctic ice shelf. Should we be...
An accelerating crack in the ice shelf known as Larsen C, the fourth largest ice shelf in Antarctica, has grown by 17 miles since the beginning of December, according to multiple news reports, including a recent article in The New York Times. The crack runs one-third of a mile deep, slicing through to the ice-shelf floor, and is, in total, more than 100 miles long. ... Scientists say the disintegration of ice shelves contributes to rising global sea levels. How so? Ice shelves act as buttresses to keep glaciers from flowing into the ocean. Sea levels rise when the ice in a glacier that is still on land accelerates into the ocean.
24 February
moun Source: Intergovernmental Pane Global Human Envi Overpopulation Global Climate Since 1979, the size of the summer polar ice cap has shrunk more than 20 percen Kennedy Sp Experimenta Impact of a 1-m rise in se A reporter for the Eau Claire Leader-Telegram contacts you for information on an article concerning global warming. She asks you the question, “If air and sea temperatures rise, will the melting of icebergs lead to sea level increases?”
As glaciers worldwide continue to lose mass by melting, this lubricates the bottom of the glacier and creates a positive feedback loop where more melting leads to more sliding and even more melting... As man-made climate change increases the average global temperature, the ice sheets on Antarctica and Greenland will become increasingly more unstable. If both ice sheets were to melt, this would raise the global sea level by over 70 meters.
5 October
Pages · Towson University
11 June
Guided Inquiry Activity
Guided Inquiry Activity: Impact of Sea Level Rise on a Local Coastal Community. Teacher Notes. Grades: 6-8. Timeline: 2 - 3 40-minute class periods. Issue or Problem: Global sea level will likely rise 9 - 88 cm within the next 100 years as the anticipated result of thermal expansion of the oceans due to global climate. changes and global warming. (IPCC, 2001).
NGS Map Final
Links to the page contain: Map of global sea level rise....
Wiens installed as the Robert S. Brookings Distinguished...
Computer models suggest the ice on West Antarctica, which, unlike that on East Antarctica, lies below sea level, could melt away in a few hundred years. “We know this happened several times in history, and so we believe this will happen again if global temperatures rise very much. The melting of this ice sheet will add about five meters to global sea level, putting every coastal city in danger,” Wiens said.
day before yesterday
News - University of New Haven
Mia Becker ’11 combined her passion for music and business to pursue a career with Live Nation, the global leader for live entertainment. “The University of New Haven gave me a great opportunity to create my own path,” she said.
1 October
University of Pittsburgh Press Digital Editions
Links to the page contain: Listening to the sea: the politics of improving environmental protection....
8 October
The 26 December 2004 Sumatra tsunami recorded on the...
Analysis of sea-level data obtained from the Atlantic Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) sea-level station at Takoradi, Ghana, West Africa, clearly reveals a tsunami signal associated with the Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 in the Indian Ocean. ... 2005b). This powerful tsunami was recorded all over the world oceans, from Antarctica in the south to the far North Pacific and the North Atlantic, including most of the sites in Chile, Peru, Mexico, California, British Columbia, Alaska, Hawaii, and the Aleutian and the Kuril Islands.
ES 331/767 Lab III | Major Ocean Rifting Major Sea-level Rise1
Near global glaciation. All continents (except Antarctica, India, and Siberia) have glacial strata, but evidence for tropical or arid climates is also widespread with no obvious latitudinal zonation. Earth's axis more tilted. Would lead to greater seasonality of climate, but otherwise does not explain mixed distribution of climatic indicators. ... These cycles are interpreted as results of frequent changes in global sea level associated with glaciation in Gondwana.
29 September
Post-glacial sea-level changes around the Australian margin...
(‘Bond Cycles’) or Antarctica (e.g. Baker et al., 2005; Lewis et al., 2008). Edmund Gill was another supporter of eustatic midelate Holocene sea-level changes, and while he acknowledged the possible inuence of hydro-isostasy he was a strong advocate for oscillating sea levels concluding his 1983 paper with ‘It is no longer a question of ... Predicted relative sea-level changes (18,000 years B.P. to present) caused by late-glacial retreat of the Antarctic ice sheet. Quaternary Research 11, 279e298. Clark, J.A., Farrell, W.E., Peltier, W.R., 1978. Global changes in postglacial sea level: A numerical calculation.
Now You “Sea” Ice, Now You Don’t
At the global level, strong evidence suggests that. ... Antarctic ecosystem, sea ice affects ocean productivity in organisms as small as bacteria to larger seabirds like. ... They spend winters on the outer extent of the sea ice surrounding Antarctica, where they molt their...
Internet Storm Center - SANS Internet Storm Center
SANS Internet Storm Center - A global cooperative cyber threat / internet security monitor and alert system. Featuring daily handler diaries with summarizing and analyzing new threats to networks and internet security events. ... Threat Level: green Handler on Duty: Johannes Ullrich.
8 August
TAFE Courses | Online Education Australia
Open Colleges is Australia’s leading online educator. Study 150 TAFE and other nationally accredited courses at your own pace. Flexible, affordable, online.
7 October
Of climate change
abrupt impacts of climate chang E. BOX 2.1 CONTINUED. FIGURE B The long-term worst-case sea-level rise from ice sheets could be more than 60 m if all of Green-land and Antarctic ice melts. A 20 m rise, equivalent to loss of all of Greenland’s ice, all of the ice in West Antarctica, and ... These normalized global sea-level variations were computed for the case of present-day ice mass variations in (a) Antarctica and (b) Greenland, as well as (c) melting of the mounting glaciers and ice sheets tabulated by Meier. In (a) and (b) it is assumed that the mass variation is uniform over the two polar regions.
PROF Ian SIMMONDS - The University of Melbourne
Antarctica (Sea ice, mass balance, ice core interpretation, katabatic flow). Arctic (Sea ice, cyclones, ocean currents, water masses, river inflow). Cyclones and tropical cyclones (Baroclinicity, CISK, hybrid systems, climate trends, extreme weather). Global warming (Greenhouse gases, climate change, carbon dioxide, methane). ... Sea level pressure response to the specification of eddy-resolving sea surface temperature in simulations of Australian east coast lows 2016.
27 August
History of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Paleoclimatic insights
Similarly, tide gauges reveal sea-level change after correction for local effects and glacial-isostatic adjustment (e.g., Douglas, 1997). Deviations from the global-average sea-level trend (w1.5e2 mm aA1 rise in the 20th century) may help constrain meltwater sources. ... If so, melting of most or all Greenland's ice seems likely, mostly on the basis of elimination: Greenland meltwater is able to supply much of the sea-level rise needed to explain the observations, and the alternative e extracting an additional 7 m of sea-level rise through melting in East Antarctica e is not considered as likely.
Environmental Transport and Fate
Sea-level rise Al Gore states that a sea-level rise of up to 20 ft would be caused by melting of either west Antarctica or Greenland in the near future. ... “Warming of the climate system is now unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increased in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rise global average sea level.” (IPCC – Summary For Policymakers – February 2007, page 5).
Antarctica | Academics | University of Colorado Denver
Antarctica has no government and belongs to no country, nevertheless it is perhaps the most international of all continents in that it is regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System now signed by 46 countries, which sets aside the continent as a scientific preserve, establishes freedom of scientific investigation and bans military activity. ... Antactica's Pine Island Glacier - implications for business relative to Pine Island Glacier melting and sea levels rising 25-30 cm.
19 January
A report of Working Group I of the
Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level (see Figure SPM.3). {3.2, 4.2, 5.5}. ... • New data since the TAR now show that losses from the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica have very likely contributed to sea level rise over 1993 to 2003 (see Table SPM.1). Flow speed has increased for some Greenland and Antarctic outlet glaciers, which drain ice from the interior of the ice sheets.
Shigeru Aoki (National Institute of Polar Research)
The Earth’s background free oscillations were detected from an analysis of SG records at Syowa Station, Antarctica for the first time (Nawa et al., 1998), and then the phenomenon was confirmed by analyses of global broadband seismometer network records. ... After his observation made, sea level variation records have been acquired at a sampling rate of 30 seconds with pressure gauge installed by Japan Coast Guard in January 1999. We analyze these data for investigating sea level variation spectrum in seismic normal mode band.
The Sydney eScholarship Repository: Choose Login Method
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10 September
Why is The Antarctic Treaty Important?
With the increased global temperature the glaciers in the Antarctic has been melting away. ... One of the reasons this may pose a huge problem is that only 2% of Antarctica is made of rock and the other 98% is made up of a massive continental ice sheet.(CIA Factbook) Not only will rising sea levels become a problem but, The Antarctic Treaty may not mean anything if there is no Antarctic continent left.
26 November
in the Amundsen Sea, West Antarctica
Ice sheet record of recent sea-ice behavior and polynya variability. in the Amundsen Sea, West Antarctica. Alison S. Criscitiello,1,2 Sarah B. Das,2 Matthew J. Evans,3 Karen E. Frey,4 Howard Conway,5 Ian Joughin,5,6 Brooke Medley,5 and Eric J. Steig5,7. ... and S. I. Whitlow (2000), Sea level pressure variability in the Amundsen. Sea region inferred from a West Antarctic glaciochemical record, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D3), 4047–4059.
Published in 2011 by Britannica Educational Publishing
Iceberg pro-duction affects the mass balance of the parent ice sheets, and melting icebergs inuence both ocean structure and global sea level. The Antarctic Ice Sheet has a volume of 28 million cubic km (about 6.7 million cubic miles), which represents 70 percent of the total fresh water (including groundwa-ter) in the world. ... In Antarctica the annual loss amounts to only one ten-thousandth of its mass, so the ice sheet is an enormous passive reservoir. However, if losses from iceberg calving and ice-shelf melting are greater than gains from snowfall, global sea levels will rise.
School of International Studies
The School of International Studies Model United Nations team, traveled to Montreal, Quebec, Canada during Spring Break (March 13th - 18th) to attend the annual Harvard World Model United Nations conference. Representing the countries of Belize and Cyprus, they joined nearly 2500 university students from around the world to debate, compromise and address issues ranging from the global refugee crises to the reintegration of Cuba.
12 December
The file cannot be accessed.
Links to the page contain: buy tickets global citizen festival....
3 May
Historical Patterns of Global
Changing face of the planet. • Gondwanaland. – includes foundations of present-day South America, Africa, Madagascar, Arabia, India, Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea, New Zealand, New Caledonia, and Antarctica. – most ancient of the Pangean land masses – great antiquity accounts for similarity of. ... Sea Level Changes during Pleistocene. • Global changes resulting from freezing or melting of sea ice (Eustatic changes).
Climate Change and Sea Level
Image depicts the largest changes in global eustatic sea level that have been inferred from geological studies. The light blue color shows an estimate of the coastline of the eastern United States during the last glacial maximum, about 20,000 years ago. The dark green shows the modern coastline, and the lighter shades of green show the coastlines that may have existed during the warm climatic interval of the middle Pliocene epoch, about 3 million years ago.
25 January
RSiinskininggTCidoeass, t
Two things are currently causing the volume of ocean water to increase: Glaciers, ice caps, and ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are melting, add-ing water that was stored on land surfaces to the ocean basins; and, at the same time, the water in the oceans is warming, causing it to expand. ... These projections are based on the National Climate Assess-ment, a report from the U.S. Global Change Research Program that has projected four scenarios of global sea level rise for its 2013 report to Congress.10 By adding what we know about land subsidence in the Virginia coastal region, we are able to develop...
Sea Level Pressure
29 November
UAB - CAS - Antarctica - Maggie
With an increasing focus on a burgeoning list of extreme weather events, elevated temperatures, and rising sea levels, ocean acidification or “the other CO2 problem”, just doesn’t get its due respect. ... As abundant as the stars in the sky shelled pteropods play a key role in the global cycling of carbon. Will these swimming snails (shown right) and the cornucopia of marine organisms that carpet the sea floors of Antarctica survive?
25 February
Confronting Climate Change
Global average sea level is conservatively pro-jected to rise one to two feet. In contrast, substantially smaller climate-related changes can be expected if the Northeast and the world reduce emissions consistent with the lower-emissions scenario used in this study—typi-cally, about half the change expected under the higher-emissions scenario. ... 2004. Accelerated sea-level rise from West Antarctica. Science 306(5694):255-258. 33 Payne, A., A. Vieli, A.P. Shepherd, D.J. Wing-ham, and E. Rignot. 2004. Recent dramatic thinning of largest West Antarctic ice stream triggered by oceans.
Climate change | sea level rise
Sea level rise. Scientic research indicates sea levels worldwide have been rising at a rate of 0.14 inches (3.5 millimeters) per year since the early 1990s. The trend, linked to global warming, puts thousands of coastal cities, like Venice, Italy, (seen here during a historic ood in 2008), and even whole islands at risk of being claimed by the ocean. ... This imbalance results in a signicant net gain in runoff versus evaporation for the ocean, causing sea levels to rise. Ice loss from Greenland and West Antarctica: As with glaciers and the ice caps, increased heat is causing the massive ice sheets that cover Greenland and...
Antarctica is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Southern Ocean and the Ross Sea. The closest land mass is the tip of Chile. Geography ... It is the 3rd smallest continent in the world. It is about half of the size of the United States. 98% of the continent is covered by the worlds largest ice sheet, the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Because of this, Antarctica is always changing. Population: There are no residents of Antarctica.
4 April
Politics at the End of the World: a public forum on the future of...
The speakers, leading practitioners and prominent scholars from several walks of life, will address such questions as: Is Antarctica the first continent to go beyond the modern doctrine of sovereignty and, if so, is it relevant for the way we think about such matters as the global commons and how the world should be governed in the 21st century? ... Government and opposition members laughed at his warning of sea level rises and it has taken 10 years for them to finally begin to acknowledge the causes and effects of climate change.
29 August
Shibboleth Authentication Request
2 December
What on Earth | WHY ANTARCTICA?
Should the entire ice sheet of western Antarctica melt, sea levels would rise between 5 and 6 meters, while the eastern ice sheet holds approximately 10 times that amount. ... Most parties don’t bother with snowshoes and simply walk on the wind-compacted snow, dragging sleds with tents, gear and extra food behind them. People frequently ask if we’ve seen conditions in Antarctica change from global warming. But neither Andy nor I feel our handful of years here quali es us to answer that question.
Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis
• Global average sea level in the last interglacial period (about 125,000 years ago) was likely 4 to 6 m higher. than during the 20th century, mainly due to the retreat of polar ice. Ice core data indicate that average polar temperatures at that time were 3 to 5°C higher than present, because of differences in the Earth’s orbit. The Greenland ice sheet and other Arctic ice fields likely contributed no more than 4 m of the observed sea level rise. There may also have been a contribution from Antarctica.
Sea level monitoring and study of sea level variations along
Map showing Pakistan coastline The UNEP in its regional seas program in 1989 has included Pakistan in a group of countries, which are vulnerable to impact of rising sea level. If the present trend of sea level rise (SLR) at Karachi continues, in the next 50 years the sea level rise along the Pakistan Coast will be 50 mm (5 cm). Since the rising rates of sea level at Karachi within the global range of 1–2 mm/year, the trends may be treated as.
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