Ice mass

Increasing rates of ice mass loss from the Greenland
In Antarctica the mass loss increased from 104 Gt/yr in 2002– 2006 to 246 Gt/yr in 2006– 2009, i.e., an acceleration of A26 ± 14 Gt/yr2 in 2002 – 2009. The observed acceleration in ice sheet mass loss helps reconcile GRACE ice mass estimates obtained for different time periods.
Accelerated West Antarctic ice mass loss continues to...
In the main body of this paper we focus our attention on results obtained for the regions of greatest mass change in West Antarctica, and discuss ice mass loss trends in the Peninsula and Dronning Maud Land. Additional details are examined in the Supplementary Material.
Update of Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Loss: Exponential?
West Antarctic ice is probably more vulnerable to rapid disintegration than Greenland ice, because the West Antarctic ice sheet rests mainly on bedrock below sea level (Hughes, 1972). The principal mechanism for mass loss from West Antarctica is warming of the ocean, melting of West Antarctic ice shelves, and thus increased flux from the ice sheet to the ocean.
Mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet
Published online 25 May 2006. Mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet. By D. j. WINGHAM1,*, a. SHEPHERD2, a. MUIR1 and g. j. MARSHALL3. ... Mass gains from accumulating snow, particularly on the Antarctic Peninsula and within East Antarctica, exceed the ice dynamic mass loss from West Antarctica.
Antarctic ice mass change estimates from grace satellite...
The potential of the GRACE mission for contributing to the assessment of Antarctic ice mass balance has been demonstrated in a number of previous studies. Here we present results from an analysis of the Release 04 monthly solutions by GFZ Potsdam. Using an adapted methodology we estimate ice mass changes both for the entire grounded ice sheet and for its large drainage basins.
Increasing Antarctic Sea Ice under Warming Atmospheric...
Their dif-ference, the net ice production (Hg ? Hm), is negative in most of the ice-covered areas except along the coast of Antarctica and in part of the Weddell and Ross Seas where ice production can be rather high (Fig. 6c). ... Region-dependent horizontal advective processes play a key role in redistributing heat and mass, and therefore con-tribute to the overall behavior of the Antarctic ice– ocean system.
Ice mass (km3)
he Antarctic ice sheet is Earth_s largest reservoir of fresh water. Accurate es-timates of its mass variability, accom-panied by realistic error bars, would greatly reduce current uncertainties in projected sea-level change, with obvious societal and economic im-pacts. ... mass changes in the interior and those in coastal areas (1). The gravitational survey of Antarctica provided by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites and discussed in this paper is a comprehensive survey of the entire ice sheet...
Mass loss in the greenland and antarctica ice...
Using detrended correlation analysis we find that mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet shows a statistically significant positive correlation consistent with the surface temperature hypothesis. No such correlation exists for ice sheet mass loss in Antarctica. We conclude that the two polar ice sheet mass loss trends are symptoms of very different underlying phenomena and they are therefore not directly comparable in terms of global warming and climate change1.
1 November
Antarctic Ice Sheet
Changes in mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet have profound implications on sea level. While there is a gen-eral consensus that West Antarctica has experienced ice loss over the past 2 decades, the range of mass-balance esti-mates still differ signicantly (compare, for example, esti-mates in Shepherd et al.
Antarctic mass rates from GRACE
After adjusting for bias due to smoothing and to GRACE’s limited spatial resolution, and removing post glacial rebound (PGR) effects, the rate in West Antarctica is A77 ± 14 km3/year, similar to a recent estimate of ice mass loss from satellite altimetry and remote sensing data. The prominent East Antarctic feature in the Enderby Land region has a rate of +80 ± 16 km3/year.
PUBLICATIONS | 3. Antarctic Ice Mass Balance
Key Points: • In the West Antarctica, there is. apparent mass loss acceleration • The acceleration is caused by. precipitation decrease and ice discharge increase • Mass gain acceleration due to atmospheric pressure is observed in GRACE gravity. Supporting Information: • Readme. Correspondence to: K.-W. Seo, Citation: Seo, K.-W., C. R. Wilson, T. Scambos, B.-M. Kim, D. E. Waliser, B. Tian, B.-H. Kim, and J. Eom (2015), Surface mass balance contributions to acceleration of Antarctic ice mass...
Accelerated Antarctic ice loss from satellite
Accurate quantication of Antarctic ice-sheet mass balance and its contribution to global sea-level rise remains chal-lenging, because in situ measurements over both space and time are sparse. Satellite remote-sensing data of ice eleva-tions and ice motion show signicant ice loss in the range of ?31 to ?196 Gt yr?1 in West Antarctica in recent years1–4, whereas East Antarctica seems to remain in balance or slightly gain mass1,2,4, with estimated rates of mass change in the range of ?4 to 22 Gt.
About Antarctica: Ice Coverage & Movement
Ice Coverage & Movement. Most people think of Antarctica's ice cover as a frozen, unchanging mass. The truth is the ice is actually a continuously changing body made up of millions of layers. ... Current estimates place the polar ice cap at 2.5 miles thick (4 kilometers) and during the winter months its blankets more than 1.8 million square miles (30 million kilometers) of land and ocean. This frozen mass represents 70% of the world's fresh water supply.
27 February
Improving our understanding of Antarctic ice mass balance
Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf. Antarctic Peninsula. GIA model estimates expressed in terms of vertical displacement. Ice history component varied only; Earth model adds further variation – this uncertainty swamps GRACE estimates of ice mass change. ... magenta = West Antarctica black = all Antarctica. Whitehouse et al., GJI, 2012. Solve for present-day ice-mass change using GRACE. We follow the forward modelling approach of Wouters et al.
Antarctic Ice
Claim: Antarctica is GAINING ice, so even if there's ice loss in the Arctic, it's just natural variation as ice gains and losses come and go around the poles. Why this Claim is Wrong. It's cherry picking again. The Southern Ocean consists of a layer of cold water near the surface and a layer of warmer water below. ... As these satellites have crisscrossed the poles for fully a decade now, they tell an unambiguous story - ice is being lost at an accelerating rate from both the Arctic and the Antarctic continental masses.
1 January
Remote Sensing & Mass Balance of the
Greenland ice sheet, June 2010. Outline. • What is the IPCC? • Measuring the mass balance of the ice sheets • Ice shelves in a warming climate • Antarctica and a warming ocean. ... Antarctic surface mass balance measured by GRACE. -3. mm/yr SLR.
A ntarctica and Greenland hold enough ice
of the loss from Antarctica and Greenland is the result of the flow of ice to the ocean from ice of the three methods—accounting the mass budget. ... For example, whereas (13) puts the total 2002 to 2005 Antarctic Ice Sheet mass loss at 417 ± 219 Gt, a subsequent meteorological study (38) has put the 2002 to 2003 snowfall deficit at 309 Gt, a value that explains most of the observed change.
The Weak Underbelly of
A t the Ottawa Symposium on the Dynamics of Large Ice Masses in August 1978, I urged David J. Drewry to include these measurements in the NSFjSPRIjTUD radio echo-sounding program during the 1978-79 Antarctic summer. ... where N is the net positive or negative mass balance that would cause the ice sheet to thicken or thin. Define B as the coefficient in the sliding law Ux = ('To/B)m for glacial ice anhd E as ice surface elevation at the equilibrium line. When the ablation zone is over a frozen bed (x .;; E)
Ice sheet mass balance
Ice sheet mass balance from remote sensing measurements. McCarthy, AK, June 2010 Ben Smith University of Washington Applied Physics Lab. Introduction. Monitoring the mass balance of glaciers should be one of the easiest tasks for glaciologists in the 21st century. ... The first is the scaling between ice sheet mass balance and sea-level rise: adding 360 Gigatons of water to the ocean leads to a one-millimeter rise in global sea level. The second and third are the annual mass turnovers of Antarctica and Greenland...
Lesson 2. Antarctic Oceanography | Ice/Glaciers
Although almost all of Antarctica's land mass is covered by ice, in a few places on the continent, mountain peaks poke through. The Transantarctic Mountains divide the areas of the continent known as West and East Antarctica. A glacier is a huge mass of ice, formed from compacted snow ... Parts of the West Antarctic ice sheet rest on the sea floor and land. Scientists carefully monitor it to see whether it will be affected by global warming.
A large area of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is also losing mass, probably because of warmer water deep in the ocean near the Antarctic coast. In East Antarctica, no clear trend has emerged, although some stations appear to be cooling slightly. Overall, scientists believe that Antarctica is starting to lose ice, but so far the process has not become as quick or as widespread as in Greenland.
Ice Update: Not So Fast Antarctica | The Green Grok
In the case of large ice sheets like those of Greenland and Antarctica, repeated measurements over time make it possible to determine if the mass of the ice sheet is increasing or decreasing and at what rate. ... Recognized as a poorly constrained area in ice mass estimates, these models typically have a large margin of error. This is reflected in Velicogna’s paper; she estimated that the PGR correction has an uncertainty of about 76 Gt per year for the Antarctic.
22 October
Assessing and Understanding Greenland and Antarctic Ice...
Collectively, these observations indicate that there has been widespread acceleration of outlet glaciers throughout Greenland and in parts of Antarctica; calving fronts and grounding lines are in retreat; both ice sheets are losing mass at an accelerating rate; melt in Greenland is on the rise ... [5] E. Rignot, J.L. Bamber, M.R. van den Broeke, C. Davis, Y. Li, W.J. van de Berg and E. van Meijgaard,. Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modelling. Nature Geosci. vol. 1, no. 106_110 2008.
Dynamics and mass balance of four large East Antarctic
The East Antarctic ice sheet (EAIS) is Earth’s largest reservoir of fresh water and has the potential to raise sea level by $50 m. A significant amount of the ice sheet’s mass is discharged by outlet glaciers draining through the Transantarctic Mountains, the balance characteristics of which are largely unknown. ... As a result of these flow changes, many glaciers are now driving negative mass imbalances in West Antarctica (Shepherd and others, 2004; Thomas, 2004) and the Antarctic Peninsula (Pritchard and Vaughan, 2007).
Why is Antarctica's Ice Sheet Growing in a Warming World?
in ice mass that’s not really there [3]. But unlike this study’s conclusions, the notion that humans are causing climate change is well established by a portfolio of lab experiments, theoretical models, and observational data [4]. ... Using this insight, the NASA team concluded the culprit behind the net ice gain is East Antarctica. It is there and the interior of the West Antarctic ice sheet where gains are occurring.
11 February
Impacts of Climate Change: Continental Ice
(1) Mass loss for Greenland, Antarctica and their sum. The horizontal lines show the equilibrium values. Shows near linear growth of increasing rate of mass loss. (2). (3) Over time the overall temperature in Antarctica is expected to increase, most likely due to global warming. ... 2013. Future surface mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet and its influence on sea level change, simulated by a regional atmospheric climate model.
Global Ice Mass Balance and its Contribution
Complete melting of the Antarctic ice sheet can raise global sea level by 60 m. Hence, quantifying Antarctic ice mass balance is of considerable societal importance, and is a key issue in understanding changes in global mean sea level rise. Different from Greenland, the climate of which is strongly affected by nearby land processes and North Atlantic, Antarctica has a dominant influence on its own climate and on the surrounding ocean.
Who is TPAC? | Antarctic Ice Mass Loss from GRACE
Bedrock topography for Antarctica highlighting areas below sea level (in black), fringing ice shelves (in dark grey) and areas above sea level (in rainbow colors).From Bamber et al. (2007). West Antarctic ice sheet (7 m SLE) grounded below sea level on marine sediment experiencing high geothermal heat flow. East/West dividing line. Antarctic Ice Mass Loss from GRACE. TPAC.
Antarctic Ice Cores and Environmental Change
Figure 1 Scientists measure ice cores from deep drilling sites on the ice sheet near Casey station Photo by M.Holmes, 1993 © Copyright Australian Antarctic Division. Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, highest and driest continent on Earth. ... It is due to this thick ice mass that Antarctica is, on average, the highest continent. Since the ice sheet is formed by the accumulation of snow year after year, by drilling from the surface down through the ice sheet, we drill our way back in time.
26 November
Insights Into Spatial Sensitivities of Ice Mass
ScholarWorks at University of Montana. Insights Into Spatial Sensitivities of Ice Mass Response to Environmental Change from the SeaRISE Ice Sheet Modeling Project I : Antarctica.
Ice Sheets and Climate Change | Antarctic ice sheet
? An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice greater than 50,000 km2 (Antarctica, Greenland). ... Key questions. ? How fast will the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets respond to climate change? ? At what level of greenhouse gas concentrations are existing ice sheets unstable? ? Can we model paleoclimate events such as glacial-interglacial transitions?
Important role for ocean warming and increased
Figure 4 Simulated changes in austral winter (April--September) temperature, salinity and sea-ice cover resulting from a 250 Gt yr - 1 increase in Antarctic mass loss (relative to the control run). References. Acknowledgements. ... In contrast to Arctic sea ice, sea ice surrounding Antarctica has expanded1, with record extent2 in 2010. This ice expansion has previously been attributed to dynamical atmospheric changes that induce atmospheric cooling3.
Weighing the Antarctic ice sheet | The Source | Washington...
One of the last big unknowns in the global climate equation is Antarctica. How stable is the Antarctic ice sheet? More than a mile thick, on average, it locks up 70 percent of the Earth’s fresh water. ... At the end of the last glacial maximum, when ice sheets reached their maximum extent 20,000 to 25,000 years ago, the ice covering Antarctica was even thicker than it is today. As the cold eased and some of the ice melted, the land mass began to rebound, flexing slowly upward.
21 February
Variability in the Mass Flux
G. A., C.L. Hulbe, H.B. Conway, T.A. Scambos, C.F. Raymond, 2012, Variability in the mass flux of the Ross Sea ice streams, Antarctica, over the last millennium. Journal of Glaciology, 58 (210), 741-752. This Article is brought to you for free and open access.
GRACE-derived mass changes, 2004-2013 Antarctica
Figure 1. GRACE-derived estimates for changes in Antarctica ice mass from 2004-2013 and a map illustrating the locations of 3 study areas: the Antarctica Peninsula (green), Pine Island Glacier (red), and Ice Stream C (blue). Originally uploaded in GETSI:Teaching Materials:Ice and Sea Level Changes. Image 47032 is a 833 by 1336 pixel PNG Uploaded: Jul7 14.
19 April
Model Estimates of the Mass Balance of the Greenland and...
Greenland and Antarctica contain together over 99 of the volume of glacier ice on Earth or about 75 meters of sea-level equivalent, yet the current state of the mass balance of these ice sheets, let alone how it may evolve in the future, is poorly known. ... A similar modeling approach is used here to estimate the mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.
Ice sheet
In East Antarctica the ice sheet rests on a major land mass, but in West Antarctica the bed is in places more than 2,500 meters below sea level. ... The Greenland, and probably the Antarctic, ice sheets have been losing mass recently, because losses due to melting and outlet glaciers have exceeded accumulation due to snowfall. According to the IPCC, loss of Antarctic ice sheet mass and Greenland ice sheet mass contributed, respectively, about 0.21 ± 0.35 and 0.21 ± 0.07 mm/year to sea level rise between 1993 and 2003.
12 October
Proceedings of Glaciology 59
The mass loss of the Antarctic ice sheet is concentrated along the Amundsen Sea embayment area and thus at the marine West Antarctica ice sheet (WAIS). Additionally, an acceleration of the flow speed of Pine Island Glacier in the past decades, as well as a retreat of its grounding line, was observed. Thus, we aim to simulate the dynamics of this ice-stream–ice-shelf system, which requires a full-Stokes approach.
19 June
Oceanic controls on the mass balance of Wilkins
approximately steady-state ice-shelf mass. Observations of ocean temperature T obtained. during 2007–2009 by instrumented seals reveal a cold, deep halo of Winter Water. ... White outline is ice-shelf extent from Mosaic of Antarctica [Scambos et al., 2007], epoch 2003/2004. Red line is the location of the north-ern ice front in February 2011. (b) Mass divergence converted to ice-shelf thickness change (m aA1) cal-culated from ice velocity and thickness fields smoothed over $15 km.
Western Antarctic Imagery | Western Ice Sheet
West Antarctica’s ice sheet is an issue of active research and societal concern. Its instability has the potential to cause significant economic impact resulting from an increase in global sea level. West Antarctica is the largest remaining ice-filled marine basin on Earth. ... The West Antarctic ice sheet has lost nearly two thirds of its mass, since the peak of the last ice age nearly 20,000 years ago. This is a volume sufficient to raise sea level by ten meters.
7 December
Antarctica Ice Melting
would result if the ice sheets were to melt. a. To do this, first calculate the ice mass, by multiplying the ice volume obtained in #2 by the ice density provided in Table 3. b. Then, recognizing from the principle of conservation of ... 6.5 meters + 73.1 meters = 79.6 meters = 261.1549 ft for Greenland and Antarctica together. DISCLAIMER: * No knowledgeable person expects the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to disappear completely within the lifetime of anyone alive today, or within the lifetime of any of their children or grandchildren.
Global Warming: Man or Myth - Modern Day Climate Change
Figure 7.15: Antarctic Ice Mass Loss. John Cook at Skeptical Science has several very good summaries of this research. ... Because the melting of Antarctic ice takes centuries there is time to lower the "tipping point" level of CO2 before it is too late. When Antarctica was last ice-free, sea levels were 70m (~230 feet) higher than today.
5 June
Ice sheet record of recent sea-ice behavior and polynya...
The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is susceptible to both marine intrusions of warm, moist air [Nicolas and Bromwich, 2011] and changes in ocean heat transport beneath its ice shelves [Jenkins et al., 2010; Jacobs et al., 2011; Steig et al., 2012]. This has resulted in the highest rates of mass loss and glacier acceleration in Antarctica outside of the Antarctic Peninsula.
Antarctica: ice thickness, internal structure and implications for
ABSTRACT. We present results from ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic surveys for the Mullins Valley debris-covered glacier (Mullins Glacier), Antarctica, that yield local ice-thickness estimates of 80–110 m in upper Mullins Valley and 150 m in upper Beacon Valley. ... Englacial debris layers most probably originate as concentrated rockfall in ice accumulation zones and/or as surface lags that form as dirty ice sublimes during periods of negative mass balance. A similar pattern of surface ridges on Friedman Glacier ($2.5 km...
Yet Another Antarctic Ice Mass Is Becoming Destabilized...
Researchers in US and Europe are reporting evidence of accelerated melting and destabilization of Antarctic ice shelves. “Using satellite based and gravity measurements, the research team found that ‘a major portion of the region has, since 2009, destabilized’ and accounts for ‘a major fraction of Antarctica’s contribution to rising sea level,’” reports Chris Mooney for the Washington Post about the research study in Science.
26 May
Why Doesn't Anyone Mention the Record Growth of Sea Ice...
Decreasing an ice mass of millions of square kilometers at a rate of 7.8 to 14.4 per cent per decade is phenomenal. And note that the ice area decreases from year to year every month. That means what melts in the summer doesn't re-freeze in the winter on the average. ... It shows regions of snow melt in Antarctica by year of first occurrence. Notes on Arctic and Antarctic Ice. Sea ice is measured from satellites, which is why data extend back only to 1979.
24 September
Mountain glaciers and other smaller ice masses
Most notable are the continental gla-ciers (ice sheets) that cover much of Antarctica and Greenland. Smaller masses of perennial ice called ice caps occupy parts of Arctic Canada and other high-latitude regions, and mountain glaciers occur in more restricted areas, such as mountain valleys and the atlands below. Other occurrences of ice on land include the differ-ent types of ground ice associated with permafrost—that is, permanently frozen soil common to very cold regions.
7 SEA-LEVEL CHANGE | Satellite Gravity and the Geosphere...
Isostatic Rebound. It is difficult to distinguish between effects of present-day changes in ice-sheet mass and effects of the Earth's visco-elastic response to changes in ice mass over the past few hundred to several thousand years, particularly in Antarctica.
9 October
Transoceanic wave propagation links iceberg calving margins of
Considering that iceberg calving is involved in the mainte-nance of Antarctica’s ice-mass budget [Jacobs et al., 1992], it is thus natural to consider whether climate conditions in the extra-tropical northern hemisphere and the tropics (e.g., storm intensity or hurricane/typhoon frequency) could exert a control on the mass budget of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.
Vanishing Polar Ice Sheets | Antarctica
Velicogna I (2009) Increasing rates of ice mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets revealed by GRACE. Geophys Res Lett 36:L19503, 4 PP., doi: 10.1029/2009GL040222. Warny S, Askin R, Hannah MJ, Mohr BAR, Raine JI, Harwood DM, et al., the SMS Science Team (2009) Palynomorphs from a sediment core reveal a sudden remarkably warm Antarctica during the middle Miocene.
Geographic Region Ice caps, ice fields, valley glaciers, etc. Greenland Ice Sheet. Antarctic East Antarctica West Antarctica Ross Ice Shelf. ... Equilibrium Line (ELA) vs. firn limit, vs. snow line Zone of Ablation (- Mass Balance). ++ --- Glaciers flow from zone of accumulation to zone of ablation. Where is ice "discharge" greatest?
The principal geographic features of Antarctica, including the ice shelves. Note the scale. ... The potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 73 m. In spite of its importance, the mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is poorly known; it is not known whether the ice sheet is growing or shrinking.
2 December
Structure and dynamics of the lambert glacier-amery ice shelf
mass. Longitudinal linear features, which most glaciologists re-fer to over-simplistically as flowlines, are characteristic of many parts of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (see Swithinbank, 1988, for many examples). ... Although rather speculative, such behavior would be in conformity with that of other ice shelves in Antarctica today, such as in the examples illustrated by Swithinbank (1988). Thus the inner Prydz Bay Sites 740 and 741 would probably have been influenced mainly by ice flowing off the coast southwest of Davis...
A method for estimating ice mass loss from relative
Ramillien, G., A. Lombard, A. Cazenave, E. R. Ivins, M. Llubes, F. Remy, and R. Biancale (2006), Interannual varia-tions of the mass balance of the Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets from GRACE, Global Planet. ... Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modeling, Nat. Geosci., 1, 106–110, doi: 10.1038/ngeo102.
Contemporary Sea Level Rise
To be helpful for mass balance estimates, InSAR needs information on ice thick-ness, a quantity difcult to estimate. GRACE space gravimetry is sensitive to solid Earth mass change, in particular, that associated with GIA. Over Antarctica, where the GIA effect is of the same order of magnitude as the ice mass change, the poorly known GIA correction is a source of signicant uncertainty.
Physical setting and tephrochronology of the summit caldera...
The West Antarctic ice sheet is a thick mass of ice that overlies the complexly rifted and vol-canically active terrain of West Antarctica. The West Antarctic ice sheet averages around 2000 m thickness, and a number of volcanoes, including thermally active Mount Berlin, protrude through the ice sheet, exposing their heavily ice-covered. summits (Fig.
These projections emphasize surface melting and accumulation in controlling ice-sheet mass balance, with different relative contributions for warmer Greenland and colder Antarctica (3). The Greenland Ice Sheet may melt entirely from future global warming (4), whereas the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) is likely to grow through increased accumulation for warmings not exceeding E5-C (5). The future of the West.
Antarctica Ice
Century after century of falling snow has created the biggest mass of freshwater ice in the world. ... He studies geotectonic evolution of continental crust in East Antarctica and the origins of the Transantarctic Mountains. Jeff Severinghaus of Scripps Institution of Oceanography, co-principal investigator, conducts research on Antarctic paleoclimate by studying ice cores.
5 September
PIne Island Glacier
The Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) Sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is the most dramatically changing portion of Antarctica -- it is presently losing mass at a rate that accounts for about 10% of the ongoing increase in global sea level. Local and global trends suggest this contribution may increase, drawing a larger fraction of the 1.5 meters of sea level equivalent from the region on time scales that are most important to humans.
21 April
Ice Dynamics at the Mouth
Presented in this paper are data collected in the region of the mouth of Ice Stream B, West Antarctica, during three field seasons(1983-1984 through 1985-1986). These data provide an excellent opportunity for understandingthe ice flow in the. mouth of an active ice stream as well as the interaction of ice. ... Shabtaie, S., and C. R. Bentley, West Antarctic ice streams draining into Ross Ice Shelf: Configuration and mass balance, 0r. Geophys. Res., 92, 1311-1336, 1987.
Abstract | What is an ice stream?
In Antarctica ice streams only account for ~10% of ice volume, but these are not small features. They can be up to 50 km wide and 2000 m thick (British Antarctic Survey, 2007). ... Antarctica is made of two ice sheets, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), separated by the Transantarctic Mountains. The EAIS is considered stable and sits on a land mass.
2 October
Ice Caps and Sea Levels as an Indicator of Global Climate...
The Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica is losing ice four times faster than it was a decade ago. Numerous ice shelves in the Antarctic and Arctic collapse and drift out to sea. The Larsen A ice shelf disintegrated in 1995; the Larsen B ice shelf disintegrated in 2002. ... CS: 2—Content of Science—Environmental Science. Distinguish between types of ice mass formations on Earth, i.e., ice caps, ice shelves, glaciers. D—Earth and Space Science.
24 October
ACCIMA: A Regional Climate System Model for the Southern...
1 Abstract 2 The Atmosphere-Ocean Coupling Causing Ice Shelf Melt in Antarctica (ACCIMA) project has 3 adapted a regional coupled atmosphere, ocean, sea-ice and land model to the polar Southern 4 Hemisphere with sufficient spatial resolution to capture key physical processes in each 5 component model. The motivation is to understand the mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet-a 6 critical element of projections of global sea-level change.
Re ections on subglacial mega oods: their possible
It has been predicted already in 2000 that, in due time, Lake Vostok (or any other huge lake un-der the ice mass of Antarctica) might become the source of a giant subglacial meltwater out-burst (Van Loon, 2000), and this prediction has since been proven to be correct, because a wa-ter mass of some 2 km3 travelled between 1996 and.
Total Arctic Sea Ice Extent and Concentration
For the two largest ice masses of continental size, those covering Green-land and Antarctica, we use the term ‘ice sheets’. For simplicity, we use units such as gigatonnes (Gt, 109 tonnes, or 1012 kg). One gigatonne is approximately equal to one cubic kilometre of freshwater (1.1 km3 of ice), and 362.5 Gt of ice removed from the land and immersed in the oceans will cause roughly 1 mm of global sea level rise (Cogley, 2012).
Cosmogenic Radionuclides In Ice Cores From
Since there is very little 26Al in the ice, its actual concentration is poorly known and the measured results don’t agree with each other. My research is focused on the measurement of the concentration of 26Al as well as 10Be in an ice core from Antarctica. ... cosmogenic radionuclides, aluminum-26, beryllium-10, accelerator mass spectrometry, ice core. REFERENCES. Fudge T. J. et al. (2012) AGU Fall Meeting, 2012, GC24B-06. Auer, M., D. Wagenbach, E. M. Wild, A. Wallner, A. Priller, H. Miller, C. Schlosser, and W. Kutschera...
Chapter 6 | 6.2.2 Antarctic ice sheet
Melting of all ice-masses would result in a global sea-level rise of almost 70 m (IPCC, 2007b). Hence, the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets are by far the largest sources of potential sea-level rise. Over the last century, it is believed that the volume loss of the two ice ... (2007), Greenland will loose mass during the 21st century, while Antarctica will probably gain mass. Hence, the combined impact on sea-level rise may be small. However, more recent studies show increased melting from coastal regions on both ice sheets.
I f the ice sheets covering Greenland and
been thought that the ability to reflect on the dynamical instabilities in response to climate warming may cause faster ice-mass loss. past or contemplate the future has facilitated. the development of unique human attributes such as imagination and creativity (7, 8). fMRI provides one important experimen-. I. f the ice sheets covering Greenland and Antarctica were to melt completely, they would raise sea level by about 65 m. But.
Future Science Opportunities in Antarctica and the Southern
of West Antarctica; the decline in the mass of these ice shelves has been greater than anywhere else in Antarctica (Figure 2.6). ... Some of this information is supported by very sparse direct surface observations. One recent project, Sea Ice Mass Balance in the Antarctic, uses a variety of remote sensing measurements including altimetry data and passive and active radar to create a baseline data set for future observations.
Ice Melt, Sea Level Rise and Superstorms: Evidence from...
We argue that ice sheets in contact with the ocean are vulnerable to non-linear disintegration in response to ocean warming, and we posit that ice sheet mass loss can be approximated by a doubling time up to sea level rise of at least several meters. ... We suggest that the explanation for a mid-Eemian sea level minimum is a substantial late-Eemian collapse of the Antarctic ice sheet facilitated by the positive warm-season insolation anomaly on Antarctica and the Southern Ocean during the late Eemian (Fig.
Ice Caps and Sea Levels as an Indicator of Global Climate...
The Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica is losing ice four times faster than it was a decade ago. Numerous ice shelves in the Antarctic and Arctic collapse and drift out to sea. The Larsen A ice shelf disintegrated in 1995; the Larsen B ice shelf disintegrated in 2002. ... CS: 2—Content of Science—Environmental Science. Distinguish between types of ice mass formations on Earth, i.e., ice caps, ice shelves, glaciers. D—Earth and Space Science.
24 October
Future Antarctic Margin Drilling
The seas surrounding Antarctica contain the world’s only zonal circum-global current system, wherein mixing occurs among water masses from all the ocean basins. Circumpolar flow maintains the thermal isolation of Antarctica from warmer surface waters to the north and has been linked to the development of continental glaciers and dynamic sea-ice regime.
East Antarctica Ice Sheet
Dunbar and Stanford graduate student Harold Rowe presented their Lake Titicaca findings at an AGU poster session. East Antarctica Ice Sheet. The AGU session also featured a presentation by Stanford graduate student Kevin Theissen on the Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf system, which is part of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet - the largest ice mass on Earth.
16 January
Rapid response of modern day ice sheets to external forcing
The Antarctic Ice Sheet is, therefore, amongst the slowest responding components of the climate system. Part of present-day ice-sheet behaviour, as a consequence, may be due to climate changes at the end of the last glacial, around 12 kyr BP. The Greenland Ice Sheet's (GrIS)'s mass turnover is faster than for interior Antarctica, yielding a mean response time on the order of a few thousand years.
Icebergs | ice-induced gouging of the seafloor
The great ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, which produce by far the greatest number of the world’s icebergs, Sow off the land and into the sea through numerous outlet glaciers. In many cases, especially in Antarctica, the ice spreads out on the sea surface, staying connected to land and forming a Soating ice shelf of greater or lesser extent. ... The occasional release of extremely large ice-bergs has a major impact on annual estimates of Antarctic mass loss.
World on the Latest Climate Science
Acceleration of melting of ice-sheets, glaciers and ice-caps: A wide array of satellite and ice measurements now demonstrate beyond doubt that both the Greenland and Antarctic ice-sheets are losing mass at an increasing rate. ... As a consequence of an assumed positive mass balance over the Antarctic ice sheet in the AR4, Antarctica was estimated to have contributed to global sea level decline during the 21st century in that report.
Missives from the Ice | Antarctic Tidbit #3
Antarctica has a large land mass underneath all the ice and it also has ice shelves which considerably expand the size of Antarctica (photo #1 is an ice shelf and the friendly whiskered face of a weddell seal looking up at me). ... Antarctica Tidbit #2. "Presently, the Antarctic ice sheet contains 90% of the ice on Earth and would raise sea levels worldwide by over 200 feet were it to melt.
4 November
Ice mass balance studies over the amundsen...
Chapter 5 examines the ice sheet elevation changes (September 2002 – May 2007) using 18-Hz Envisat stackfile technique over the Amundsen Sea sector, West Antarctica with 1-km resolution Antarctic DEM. The estimates ice mass loss is compared with previous altimeter results and GRACE-derive ice mass change. Chapter 6 concludes with a recommendation on future studies.
Data from the GRACE satellite show that the Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass at an equivalent rate of sea level rise of about 0.54 mm/yr (Chen et al., 2006). Most recent major field campaigns, such as the Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessments in Greenland, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Project in West Antarctica, the International Trans-Antarctic Science Expedition (ITASE) across Antarctica, and the U.S. NSF Science and Technology Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS)...
Results have been based on ice cores taken from undisturbed ice sheets, such as those in Antarctica . Ice cores provide uninterrupted information on important properties of paleoclimate, including local temperature and precipitation rate, humidity, and wind speed as well as changes in atmospheric composition. ... Oxygen has two stable isotopes of importance, 16O and 18O, which vary in mass.
2 February
The coupled GRACE/GIA evaluation of the Antarctic ice...
Similarly to the computation of the global mean sea level (GMSL), the computation of the ice sheet thickness, follows a large number of assumptions. As a result, the actual inaccuracy of the Antarctic ice sheet thickness computation is much larger than any trend proposed. ... Antarctica; ice thickness; sea ice extension; temperature; modelling; measurements.
26 February
Antarctica - MicrobeWiki
Location. Antarctic sea ice surrounds the southernmost continent year around. Due to the 3.5% salinity of the ocean water, sea ice forms at a lower temperature than freshwater: -1.8 °C (28.8 °F) compared to 0 °C (32 °F) [5.1]. The amount of sea ice is consantly changing the size of Antarctica throughout the various seasons. The total land mass of Antarctica without ice is 280,000 km? (108,108.6 sq mi).
6 March
Antarctica – Imagined Geographies
APOS report | 2.2 Ice Sheet Mass Balance from Past to Future
Many of the research questions address global environmental change, including ice-mass loss and corresponding sea-level rise, the role of polar processes in affecting climate, and possible terrestrial changes linked to solar cycles. ... Due to the size and thickness of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, little is known about the geologic composition and tectonic history of Antarctica and Greenland, except around the continental margins and along some mountain fronts where outcrops are exposed.
Greenland ice sheet mass balance (and mass balance...)
Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass by near-coastal thinning, and that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, with thickening in the west and thinning in the north, is probably thinning overall. The mass imbalance of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is likely to be small, but even its sign cannot yet be determined. Large sectors of ice in southeast Greenland, the Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula are changing quite rapidly as a result of processes not yet understood.
A Strategic Vision for NSF Investments
Figure 1. The mass of the Antarctic ice sheet declined by 92 billion tons per year from 2003 to 2014. The color scale indi-cates change in land ice mass (equivalent to centimeters of water), with red denoting the largest loss, and blue the largest gain. Most ice was lost from West Antarctica’s Amundsen Sea region (box a) and the Antarctic Peninsula (box b). The East Antarctic (box c) primarily thickened during that time.
The requested page is inaccessible.
Links to the page contain: Number 1: Pacific Hot Spots, Antarctic Ice....
26 December
Long-term ice sheet–climate interactions under anthropogenic
All numbers given here correspond only to grounded ice, that is, the area and volume of the ice shelves have not been taken into account. The ice excess is placed in West Antarctica and the area of the Amery Ice Shelf (Fig. 1). The grounding line is correctly located in most of the margins. ... J Clim 7:1870–1882 Ohmura A, Calanca P, Wild M, Anklin M (1996) A possible change in mass balance of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets in the coming century.
But even if the ice were to melt, it would not affect the sea level since the ice is already floating (a glass of water does not overflow when the ice cubes melt). A number of ice shelves, which fringe the Antarctic coast, have broken up in recent years. ... Get Involved in an Online Classroom about Antarctica- Blue Ice. Teachers Experiencing Antarctica - organization of teachers who have been to Antarctica doing research.
6 August
1-11 Global Hydrological Cycle - Text
Ice masses offer storage of H2O (Figure 10 ) on time scales ranging from a few months for continental seasonal snow pack to thousands of years for the Antarctic ice mass. ... Antarctica (Figure 11). The Antarctic ice sheet is a massive expanse of permanent ice whose high reflectance causes this region of the planet to lose more radiant energy through infrared radiation than it gains through illumination by the sun.
25 March
Research In Antarc/ca | Ice Cores, why are they significant?
But why are we losing so much ice? Well, besides the climate change and green house gasses, Ice shelves in Antarctica are losing more mass then the glaciers are gaining. Don’t worry this process is normal.
Developing a Method for
Many recent studies have concentrated on the surface mass-balance (SMB) and mass changes of the Antarctic ice sheet [2]. For an enhanced understanding of Earth’s climate changes, as well as the polar regions, which are capable of contributing significantly to global sea-level change [3], these studies are of vital importance [2] [3] [4] [5]. West Antarctica, in particular, is seriously lacking in point based measurements of the accumulation rate, whether through snow pit or ice core analysis [4]...
PROF Ian SIMMONDS - The University of Melbourne
Antarctica (Sea ice, mass balance, ice core interpretation, katabatic flow). Arctic (Sea ice, cyclones, ocean currents, water masses, river inflow). Cyclones and tropical cyclones (Baroclinicity, CISK, hybrid systems, climate trends, extreme weather). ... Ian Simmonds also has interests in the behaviour and influence of Antarctic sea ice, and in the distribution and behaviour of ‘Greenhouse’ trace gases.
27 August
History of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Paleoclimatic insights
Comprehensive ice-ow models generally have not incorpo-rated these processes, and have failed to accurately project recent ice-ow accelerations in parts of Greenland and Antarctica (Alley et al., 2005a; Bamber et al., 2007; Lemke et al., 2007). ... Velicogna, I., 2009. Increasing rates of ice mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets revealed by GRACE. Geophysical Research Letters 36 Art. No.
Antarctica is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Southern Ocean and the Ross Sea. The closest land mass is the tip of Chile. ... 98% of the continent is covered by the worlds largest ice sheet, the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Because of this, Antarctica is always changing. Population: There are no residents of Antarctica. However, scientists make long trips to Antarctica to complete studies.
4 April
Spatial Sciences, Curtin University Perth, WA, Australia
The BED layer represents Earth’s relief without water and ice masses, and the TBI layer Earth’s relief without ocean and lake water masses, they thus differ by the ice sheet thicknesses (and water columns below ice over parts of Antarctica). Table 1 summarizes the differences between the five global Earth2014 grid layers which all provide in approximation physical heights (w.r.t mean sea level) of the relief.
There’s a giant crack in an Antarctic ice shelf. Should we be...
An accelerating crack in the ice shelf known as Larsen C, the fourth largest ice shelf in Antarctica, has grown by 17 miles since the beginning of December, according to multiple news reports, including a recent article in The New York Times. ... The glacier then will lose ice to the ocean, and that transfer of ice mass displaces ocean water and sea levels rise. Sea level rise has the potential to be the most expensive consequence of global climate change.
24 February
Post-glacial regional climate variability along the East...
The most prominent feature of Antarctica is its ice sheet, which covers over 99% of the continent and is made up of three distinct morphological zones, consisting of the EAIS, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and the glaciers of the AP. ... In the Lutzow-Holm Bay region, a rapid isostatic rebound (6 m in c. 1000 yrs) occurred between c. 4.7 and 3 ka BP, which was linked to the rapid removal of part of the regional ice mass, most likely as a result of ice melting caused by warming (Okuno et al., 2007).
Finding new causes for polar ice sheet changes - Engineering
The Antarctic ice sheet may grow thinner or thicker from natural changes in snowfall that are unrelated to long-term trends, according to a recently released study co-authored by a University of Missouri engineering researcher. ... “Large negative changes in polar ice sheet elevations, such as those recorded in West Antarctica and Greenland coastal areas, can only be explained by significant losses of polar ice sheet mass,” he said.
Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2012)
summer months) and “dry” (volatile-free) geomorphic processes (during winter months). In Garwood Valley, a reentrant lobe of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet/Ross Ice Shelf was stranded at the close of the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~6-12 ky before present [10]. ... Garwood Valley, Antarctica, is a type. locality for studying cold desert gully development in a. buried ice substrate where ground-ice melt drives gully. growth. It is also an ideal laboratory for studying dry. mass-wasting processes that modify and degrade gul
Spatial and temporal variations of water mass
2. Water mass and energy may be transferred from one storage compartment to another. III. The hydrologic cycle. A. General Statement: 99% of all earth's water is held in storage in form of oceans, lakes, glacial ice or groundwater. ... C. Moisture Inventory: 1. Oceans: contain 97% of Earth's water a. >70% of Earth's Surface Covered in Water 2. Glaciers: 2% of all moisture, comprising 75% of worlds fresh water a. Continental Ice Sheets (1) Antarctica (2) Greenland b. Ocean Ice (1) Antarctic Shelf (2) Arctic Sea c...
Antarctic landscapes
Antarctica is often referred to as ‘the Ice’ and as I came to know more about ice I realised that each singular ice crystal is a component that connects with others to build the icy landscapes and seas of Antarctica. Antarctic ice has a wide-range of forms and when I read Stephen Pyne’s influential work The Ice I empathised with his descriptions: Out of simple ice crystals is constructed a vast hierarchy of ice masses, ice terranes, and ice structures.
Antarctica’s Drygalski Ice Tongue
A Giant Tongue of Ice In these satellite images, the Drygalski Ice Tongue juts out from the icy land of Antarctica into McMurdo Sound like a pier. Drygalski is a floating extension of a land-based glacier. ... Floating ice sits low in the water with 90 percent of its mass submerged below the waterline. Consider the power that has pushed this enormous tongue of ice so far out to sea!
Planning Your Trip
1 hy would anyone go to Antarctica? It’s the coldest, windiest, driest, and most remote continent on Earth. Winds coming from the South Pole can howl across the ice at 200 miles an hour. The temperature can drop to 100 degrees below zero Fahrenheit (–73° C). An ice sheet, three miles thick in places, covers 98 percent of the continent, giving it the nickname the Ice. ... In an Antarctic winter, the sun never rises. 4 For much of the year, Antarctica is surrounded by ice.
The northern foothills (northern victoria land, antarctica)
The identification of these different types of ground ice is useful for a better understanding of the paleoenvironmental evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet. Little is known about the distribution of ground ice in the permafrost areas of Antarctica. ... The 7th International Permafrost Conference. Table 1. Chemical and isotopic data of Amorphous and Boulder Clay Glaciers ground ice samples. H2 and CO2 samples were measured with a Finnigan Delta S mass spectrometer.
Abrupt Climate Change
Determination of the mass budget of the Antarctic ice sheet is not as advanced as that for Greenland. The mass balance for Antarctica as a whole has likely experienced a net loss since 2000 at rates of a few tens of Gt a-1 that are increasing with time, but with uncertainty of a similar magnitude to the estimated amount.
Atmospheric and Ice Core Chemistry of Hydroperoxides in...
Riedel, K., R. Weller, O. Schrems, and G. Koenig-Langlo (2000), Variability of tropospheric hydroperoxides at a coastal surface site in Antarctica, Atmospheric Environment, 34, 5225-5234. Sander, R., and P. J. Crutzen (1996), Model study indicating halogen activation and ozone destruction in polluted air masses transported to the sea, Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, 9121-9138. Schwander, J., H. Oeschger, and C. C. Langway (1989), The transformation of snow to ice and the occlusion of gases...
ICE :: Antarctica
ICE Case Studies Number 215, May 2007. Considering conflict in Antarctica. by Jason Rancatuore. ... Scientists consider the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), an area of overlapping claims by the Chileans, British, and Argentines that is also home to bases from numerous other states including Brazil, China, Poland, South Korea, Ukraine, and Uruguay, as a benchmark for measuring dangerous climate change (Oppenheimer and Alley 2004; cf.
11 August
Polar Lakes and
1977). However, it was Kapitsa’s description of subgla-cial Lake Vostok in Antarctica that convinced the scienti c community of the existence of major res-ervoirs of water beneath thick ice sheets (Kapitsa et al. 1996). We now know that more than 150 lakes exist beneath the Antarctic ice sheets (Priscu et al. ... 2007; see Plate 1). Recent evidence also indicates that subglacial lakes may initiate and maintain rapid ice ow and should be considered in ice-sheet mass balance assessments.
Flying under the big ice
Join UC Davis researcher Alexander Forrest for a view under the ice in Antarctica. Alexander will have just returned from a research excursion using robotic submarines under the Erebus ice-tongue in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. ... coupling on water mass evolution, sea ice formation, and biological processes. This AUV deployment embodies the use of a pioneering technology to make advances in Polar exploration that would not be possible otherwise.
ICE-D: ANTARCTICA -- Obsolete link
ICE-D. informal cosmogenic-nuclide exposure-age database. ANTARCTICA. This interface to the ICE-D database is obsolete. Please use the new interface at If you keep winding up here, please email Greg with a description of the problem.
19 April
Profile kathy licht
While it's extremely unlikely that the entire ice mass will melt soon, "even a 1/2-to 1-meter sea-level rise, which is the predicted amount for the next century, will dramatically affect low-lying coastal cities such as New Orleans, Venice and many other areas of the world with large population centers," Licht said. She describes the ice shelves as a "canary in the coal mine"-an indicator of the effects of global warming on Antarctica.
Earth’s Climate
This water mass, called Antarctic bottom water, fills the deep Pacific and Indian oceans. Some forms near the Antarctic coast when seawater is chilled by very cold air masses and as a result of salt rejection as sea ice forms. Some also forms by intense cooling in gaps in the extensive sea-ice cover well away from Antarctica.
Into the Great White Open | Ice Stories: Dispatches From...
The East Antarctic ice sheet looms large on the continent of Antarctica and in the world’s climate system. This vast region is relatively unexplored compared to its neighbor, the West Antarctic ice sheet. ... The primary goal of the traverse was to measure the mass balance, or the overall gain or loss of ice over time. Contrary views of whether the East Antarctica ice sheet is growing, staying the same, or shrinking have developed in recent years based on satellite-based remote sensing imagery.
26 November
Antarctica or bust: Clark's southernmost research
Their study projects a doubling of surface melting of Antarctic ice shelves by 2050 if greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel consumption continue at the present rate. “We concluded that surface melting can intensify very quickly as the climate warms and potentially threaten the stability of parts of Antarctica in this century,” said Trusel, who will continue his research as a professor for Rowan University next fall. ... With Mass. considering marijuana legalization, students dig into research.
3 June
Microclimate and mass fluxes of debris laden ice surfaces in...
This study investigates the microclimate and hydrology of debris-laden ice surfaces in the Taylor Valley, Antarctica, in early summer, focusing on the onset of melt. Measurements of energy and mass fluxes were made on an outwash fan and in moraines near the terminus of Taylor Glacier.
15 April
Antarctic landfast sea ice: the role of platelet ice
INTRODUCTION A significant portion of the first-year, landfast sea ice of Antarctica is composed of platelet ice, an ice type that distinguishes it from the sea ice of most other regions. The term platelet ice may refer to unconsolidated crystals either at depth (Dayton et al., 1969; Dieckmann et al., 1986; Penrose et al., 1994) or held by buoyancy at the ice-water interface (Crocker and Wadhams, 1989). ... Some of the McMurdo Sound water mass originates from beneath the Ross Ice Shelf.
Ice-Sheet Response to Oceanic Forcing
The ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica are losing ice at accelerating rates, much of which is a response to oceanic forcing, especially of the floating ice shelves. ... Earlier projections indi-cated ice-sheet losses in Greenland would be off-set largely by gains in Antarctica, where a warmer atmosphere is expected to increase snowfall more than surface melt (1). Such projections are at odds with recent observations, which indicate that both ice sheets are losing mass at accelerat-ing rates.
Sea ice thickness and the distribution
The main data source for sea ice thickness from in-situ data around Antarctica comes from the ASPeCt (Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate) program ship observations (Worby et al 2008). ... Sea ice volume is an important indicator of regional change in ice mass balance because it accounts for the changes in areal extent as well as thickness. Ice volume accounts for annual ice production and provides records of total ice mass stored a region.
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6 February
Rate of late Quaternary ice-cap thinning on King George...
masses to the SSIs (King & Turner 1997). Cyclonic ac-tivity becomes greater and more frequent in summer as a consequence of the shift in the circum-Antarctic low pressure trough, providing the archipelago with abun-dant precipitation (Turner et al. ... Nakada & Lambeck (1988) argue that the temporal pattern of deglaciation may explain the pattern of global sea level changes resulting from Antarctica meltwater input. Specically, the WAIS and Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet are key sectors for watching the meltwater input into...
Jay Dickson - Antarctic Time-Lapse
These images are synchronized with meteorological data to close the climate forcing/surface response loop, and allow for the testing of detailed hypotheses regarding Antarctic landscape evolution. ... * * * Melting of the Garwood Ice Cliff, Antarctica. A stranded ice mass is exposed on its equator-facing side.
10 December
Isostasy and Large Scale Gravity Chap. 9 Homework Answers...
The 20,000 yrs since the application of the ice load (mass added) would permit isostatic equilibrium; hence, the free-air gravity anomaly would be zero. (iv) The thickness of ice decreased several tens of thousands of years ago. ... 6. If all the ice of Antarctica were to melt rapidly, would you expect (a) a thousand years later, (b) a million years later, that the shoreline around Antarctica would be, compared to the present, higher, lower, or the same ?
Sediment Interpretations of Ice Rafted Debris in the
In modern Antarctica, major ice streams and outlet glaciers from Coats Land drain into the Filchner ice shelf, providing a mechanism for Grenvillian sediment to move west before becoming ice rafted in the Weddell gyre (Shepherd et al., 2006). ... Drewry, D. J., and Cooper, A. P. R., 1981, Processes and Models of Antarctic glaciomarine sedimentation: Annals of Glaciology, v. 2, p. 117-­?122. Dutton, A., et al. "Sea-­?level rise due to polar ice-­?sheet mass loss during past warm periods."
Volcanoes helped species survive Antarctica's extreme ice...
2 August
The Arctic and The Antarctic | Smithsonian Ocean Portal
Antarctica is the coldest, driest, and windiest of Earth's seven continents, and 98 percent of the continent is covered by ice with no tundra, trees or bushes. Even in the southern summer, the average temperature is -17.5°F (-27.5°C), although along the coast it is warmer. ... Icebergs are formed when chunks of glacial ice break off (called calving) from an ice sheet or shelf. They float with most of their mass below the water, hence the expression “tip of the iceberg”. It is land ice that, as it melts, contributes to sea-level rise.
30 September
French Antarctic station, Dumont D'Urville (DDU), named for...
Claire Gegout (MS ’08, Kirchhoff) is currently on a one-year assignment as a scientist at the French Antarctic station, Dumont D'Urville (DDU), named for the French explorer who first set foot first on that location in Antarctica. ... She checks a network of 150 beacons to gather data that will help create a model to predict the evolution of ice mass in this zone.
Georgetown University
3 May
Applied Geomorphology | Ice Shelves
? Valley (Alpine): rivers of ice that flow through valleys to lower elevations. ? Continental: large ice masses that cover significant portions of continents and are a mile or more thick. ? Currently only 2 continental glaciers exist: the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.
Definitions for Antarctica
1. Iceberg- a mass of floating ice which has broken off a glacier. 2. Penguin- flightless birds found in Antarctica and near by areas. 3. Snow- flakes of frozen water. 4. Antarctica- fifth largest continent in the world. 5. Desert- a dry region that receives little to no rainfall per year. 6. Krill- a popular food source for animals that surround Antarctica. 7. Parka- heavy winter jacket. 8. Climate- the usual weather a place has all year.
8 December
Aster_Abstracts - Rick AsterRick Aster
Saddler, D., Wilson, T., Bevis, M., Balziel, I., Ferraccioli, F., Jordan, T., Von Frese, R., Aster, R., Chaput, J., Wiens, D., Uplift Patterns, Crustal Structure and Ice Mass Change Variations in the Weddell Embayment, Proceedings, 12th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, Goa, India, July 13-17, 2015. McGrath, D., Pope, A., Aster, R., Scambos, T., Potential Controls on a Rapidly Propagating Rift on the Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctica, West Antarctic Ice Sheet Workshop, Loveland CO, September 16-19, 2015.
25 March
Antarctica | Academics | University of Colorado Denver
Antarctica, situated in the southern hemisphere and almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, is the fifth largest continent in area, with 98% of its land mass covered by ice. There are no permanent human residents, but anywhere from 1000 to 5000 people reside at the various research stations scattered across the continent. Antarctica has no government and belongs to no country, nevertheless it is perhaps the most international of all continents in that it is regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System now signed by 46 countries...
19 January
Mary R. Albert | Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth
Mary R. Albert. Related Links. U.S. Ice Drilling Program. Norwegian-US Scientific Traverse of East Antarctica. International Collaboration for Education and Ice Core Science. Dartmouth IGERT Polar Enviromental Change Program. Ice Research Laboratory. ... K. Farness, T. Neumann, M. Albert, J.G. Winther, 2012. Extent of low-accumulation ‘wind glaze’ areas on the East Antarctic plateau: implications for continental ice mass balance.
31 July
A View of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Evolution from
Kennett (1977) attributed the Eocene-Oligocene transition to the development of a nascent Ant-arctic Circumpolar Current that caused thermal isolation of Antarctica, development of sea ice (though not continental-scale glaciation), and an increase in Antarctic bottom water (AABW). ... Their view was developed from work by DeConto and Pol-lard (2003a,b) who used a coupled global climate and ice-sheet model that accounts for bedrock loading, lapse rate effects of topography, surface mass balance, basal melting, and ice ow and...
Climate Change Effects
The West Antarctic ice sheet had a loss of 148 + 21 km3 per year, and the East Antarctic ice sheet had a change of 0 + 56 km3 per year from 2002-2005 (Velicogna & Wahr 2006). There is a general consensus among different mass balance techniques that both Greenland and Antarctica are currently ex-periencing a net loss of ice (table 1).
Diposit Digital de la Universitat de Barcelona: Study of...
Study of Johnsons Glacier (Livingston Island, Antarctica) by means of shallow ice cores and their tephra and by analysis of 137Cs content. ... verifying the age of the 1970 tephra layer; and, v) to calculate both the equilibrium line of the glacier and average mass balance over the last 28 years (1965-1993). The stratigr a p hy of the cores, their cumulative density curves and the isothermal ice temperatures recorded confi rm that Johnsons Glacier is a temperate glacier.
24 December
Researchers Secure NASA Funding for Robotic Search for...
In the proposed Phase B, SPINDLE will penetrate the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica’s largest ice shelf, a thick mass of ice equivalent to the area of France. In a final, daring mission, proposed as Phase C, SPINDLE will penetrate into a completely unexplored deep subglacial lake beneath the remote Antarctic plateau and deploy the HAUV to autonomously explore and search for microbial life without human guidance.
9 March
Fear and loathing in the south pole: the need
presented by the Antarctic ice and the belief that the continent provided little commercial benefit deterred sovereignty claims and attempts at large-scale exploitation of mineral resources on the continent.23. B. The Amount of Oil in Antarctica. ... 2007) (discussing the impact of melting ice on Antarctica’s mass). “Flow speed has increased for some . . . Antarctic outlet glaciers, which drain ice from the interior of the ice sheets. The corresponding increased ice sheet mass loss has often followed thinning, reduction or...
West Antarctic Surface Mass Balance: Do Synoptic
While higher Net Surface Mass Balance (SMB) over West Antarctica during this period of warming is expected, SMB reconstructions from ice cores reveal a more complex pattern during the period of warming. The mechanisms giving rise to SMB variability over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) are not well understood due to lack of instrumental data. ... Keywords: Climate Variability, West Antarctica, Surface Mass Balance, Ice Core.
“Glaciers are large masses of ice, resting on land or floating...”
Ice sheets are located in Antarctica and Greenland. They are large masses of ice, which cover more than 50,000 square kilometers. Ice Shelves are slabs of glacier ice, which lie flat on the sea (Sandberg). Glaciers that discharge into the sea from higher ground become detached from the bed and float, spreading out to cover large bays.
3 November
Polar Science at DRI
Mission Antarctica - Functional Genomics and Physiological Ecology of Seasonal Succession in Antarctic Phytoplankton: Adaptations to Light and Temperature. Joe Grzymski • NSF-Office of Polar Programs This collaborative study is examining the molecular biology ... This understanding is achieved, in part, through application of DRI’s unique ultra-trace element analytical system utilizing continuous flow of ice core melt water and two mass spectrometers to produce sub-annual reso-lution of elemental deposition.
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Links to the page contain: disney on ice tickets newcastle 2013....
15 March
Internet Storm Center - SANS Internet Storm Center
SANS Internet Storm Center - A global cooperative cyber threat / internet security monitor and alert system. Featuring daily handler diaries with summarizing and analyzing new threats to networks and internet security events.
8 August
My Antarctica
Cherry Sara Wheeler Random House 2002 Some years ago, marooned in a small tent close to one of the dynamic ice streams on the west Antarctic ice sheet, I finished reading _The Worst Journey in the World_ as a blizzard closed in around our tiny camp. Greetings from Antarctica Sara Wheeler Peter Bedrick Books 1999 Antarctica is a continent that sits right at the bottom of the planet.
9 December
Sea Ice and Density-Driven Ocean Circulation
Heating, cooling, precipitation and evaporation change the density of seawater. The density driven circulation is the motion that arises as dense water sinks below light water under the influence of gravity. Graphic: Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. ... 1500-4000 m Bottom. about 1500 m Deep. Water Mass Layering (Atlantic). Antarctic Intermediate Water - flows northward.
404 | The University of Virginia
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15 December
Know Your | Pack Ice
A mass of ice and snow of considerable thickness and large area on rock or floating on water. An ice sheet of greater. than 50,000 square Km is called an ice cap. ... A later stage of freezing than frazile ice; coagulated spicules and plates. Glacier. A mass of snow and ice continuously moving from higher to lower ground, or if afloat, constantly spreading.
Polar Genre Fiction
S. Fowler Wright. Under the Antarctic ice, three British travelers discover a lost civilization descended from 17th-c religious fanatics, & must fight to save themselves from being burned as heretics. Reprinted in 2009. ... Pandora. Michael Cole. American and Russian submarines explore large grey mass underneath the ice in Antarctica. S. 2014.
21 August
Sea-level Rise
for reductions in land ice are appropriate because the effects of loss of ice mass in Greenland on sea levels along the U.S. East Coast are not the same as the loss of an equivalent mass in Antarctica.34 Sea level will increase less close to the ice mass because the gravitational attraction of ocean water is diminished and will increase more.
Among extant ice sheets, the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets are considered the most sensitive to atmospheric warming. Debate surrounds the sensitivity of the larger East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), which likely exhibits complex and spatially non-uniform response to ... Some of the slowest erosion rates ever recorded are found in the ice-free regions of Antarctica. An important aspect of my of my ongoing research is to study cold-desert weathering processes and quantify erosion rates in the McMurdo Dry Valleys.
2 April
The multimillennial sea-level commitment of
Because summer temper-atures around the ice sheet’s margins are warm enough to produce melt over a large area of the ice sheet, perturbations in the climate strongly affect the surface mass balance of the ice sheet. ... The total volume of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is equivalent to 55–60 m of global mean sea level (31). Most of the ice loss on Antarctica is due to solid-ice discharge, and thus the representation of the ice ow and sliding is par-ticularly important.
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Links to the page contain: Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Diversity in the Antarctic......
7 March
Social Studies of Science
In addition, the authors decided to exclude from their tabulated, numerical estimates of 21st century sea level rise the possibility of any further changes in flow rate (called ice dynamics) from either Greenland or Antarctica (Oppenheimer et al., 2007). ... At first glance, the WAIS appears to be like the larger, contiguous East Antarctic ice sheet – a huge expanse of ice frozen over land, accumulating in a mass several kilometers high through snowfall, and then losing mass into the sea at its edge as the ice moves toward...
Reconstructing past antarctic ice flow paths in the ross
Multicollector ICP Mass Spectrometry…..77. x. INTRODUCTION Antarctica is divided by the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) into the larger, slow-flowing East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) and the smaller, less stable West Antarctic Ice sheet (WAIS) that contains areas of fast moving ice called ice streams (Alley and Bindschadler, 2001) (Fig.
Modeled methanesulfonic acid (MSA) deposition in Antarctica
Our model runs suggest that DMS emissions from the sea ice zone may account for 26–62% of MSA deposition at the Antarctic coast and 36–95% in inland Antarctica. ... Biol., 121(2), 381–387. Liss, P., and L. Merlivat (1986), Air-sea gas exchange rates: Introduction and synthesis, in The Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling, edited by P. Buat-Menard, pp. 113–127, D Reidel, Norwell, Mass.
Global warming and the melting arctic polar...
There are now observations of huge cracks in the ice occurring all along Antarctica, which decreases the greater ice-mass and decreases its efficiency as a whole to work in reflecting the sun’s rays. ... Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, Vol. 32, No. 1. (Feb 2000), pp. 104-106. University of Colorado. 2) “An Estimate of the Flux of Iceberg Calving from Greenland”, Grant R. Bigg.
3 May
Untitled Document
AABW forms along the continental shelf of Antarctica by the process of freezing new ice onto the margins of the Antarctic ice sheet. The water is already quite cold and the increase in density which occurs as salts are expelled from the freezing ice produce an even denser water mass. This process of deep water formation is called the near-boundary process.
15 December
Explore Antarctica!
Antarctic Explorations. 1772 Captain James Cook of England circles Antarctica by ship. He never reaches land because of the heavy ice. December 14, 1911 Roald Amundsen of Norway becomes the first person to reach the South Pole. 1914–1916 Ernest Shackleton leads a famed British expedition on the Endurance. The ship is crushed by ice and destroyed. The team drifts on ice masses for five months before being rescued.
Tipping Earth through Glaciers
- Continentality - Specific Heat(link) (and heat capacity) - Specific Heat is defined as: the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature of a substance 1 degree C. - The Point - Water takes longer to heat up and cool down than land - it ... We can measure ice loss: Thanks, NASA! (red -ice gain, blue - ice loss, yellow -glacial ice) (link) Here is Antarctica (link). Big careful regarding the pseudo-science twists that some come up with... growing sea ice near antarctic does not mean the actual glaciers aren't disappearing.
17 June
Read the Web :: NELL KnowledgeBase Browser
Links to the page contain: swampscott_massachusetts....
13 October
Antarctica Research | Christine Siddoway
The Shelf acts as a buttress for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, slowing or preventing Ice Sheet advance toward the Southern Ocean. ... Participation in international research programs in Antarctica. 1992-93 GANOVEX VII, 7th German Antarctic North Victorialand Expedition. 1995-96 Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide, Spedizione X: Lanterman Range (“Camp Jackman”) via Terra Nova Bay station.
11 February
Graphing Sea Ice Extent in the Arctic and Antarctic
• Students' hypotheses about the monthly variation in Antarctic sea ice should help you note which of your students really understand how the seasons work. BACKGROUND INFORMATION: 1. When students first estimate the seasonal time variation (from 2005 through 2007) of the extent of sea ice in the Arctic (before they are given data), they should realize that ... Also, the heat retention properties of a large land mass and huge ice sheet (in Antarctica) are very different that those of an large body of water (the Arctic Ocean).
Project Hieroglyph
An Anthology of stories set in the future, from some of today’s leading writers, thinkers, and visionaries that reignites the iconic and optimistic visions of the golden age of science fiction. Get the book.
12 February
Chapter 17: Glacial and Periglacial Processes and Landforms
Glacier – A large mass of ice, resting on land or floating as an ice shelf in the sea adjacent to land. They form by the continual accumulation of snow that recrystallizes under its own weight into an ice mass. ... Continental Glacier – Vast ice sheets that are connected to continental land masses. Antarctica alone contains 91% of all glacial ice on the planet. Some of these ice sheets are 3000m thick so that only the highest peaks stick out above them.
1 April
Antarctica | Ice and Brine Microorganisms
ANTARCTICA. Antarctic and antarctic biology and research have fascinated marine biologists for many years. While much of the Antarctic biota contains representatives that are familiar to us, the realm is very much isolated from the rest of the ocean, and several groups are confined to this southern end of the planet. ... This community has similarities to the assemblages reported from antarctic pack ice. An important feature of this community is the dominance of athecate, photosynthetic dinoflagellates.
26 November
The United States and Antarctica: Rethinking the
13 The ice sheet is the central and most striking feature of Antarctica. The total volume of ice in the continent is estimated at a staggering thirty million cubic kilometers. 14 This ice lies in an average thickness of 1,600 meters and constitutes seventy percent of the world's fresh water reserves.1 5. ... To. Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, and Australia, the Antarctic is not viewed as a distant frigid ice mass, but a nearby continent on which hostile military activity could easily threaten their national security.
Permo-Carboniferous and Ice Flow
At the present time, glacier ice covers as much as 10 per cent of the earth's land surface. We are now living in a glacial era that began in Antarctica about 40 million years ago. ... It is one of the many ice ages that has occurred on this earth's life time. This is also an era that has been used to submit proof that the continents were once a large land mass called Gondwana. Permo-Carboniferous rocks are widely distributed in Gondwana.
29 March
12. What fraction of an ice mass is below seawater for an average iceberg? 13. Which moon of Jupiter shows clear evidence of past icebergs? ... 31. What effect has the weight of all this ice had on parts of the landmass of Antarctica and Greenland? Continental Glacier Landforms 32. What name do we give to the numerous lakes in Minnesota that were created by continental. glaciers?
Webpages No Longer Available
The astronomy pages formerly available at this address are no longer available. They were left up, without maintenance, for almost 20 years, because there were many requests from users to do so. However, astronomy and astrophysics knowledge evolves, ...
16 December
Ocean | Formation of the Antarctic Bottom Water
Ocean Water Masses-Intermediate, Deep and Bottom Waters. C. Chen. General Physical Oceanography MAR 555. School for Marine Sciences and Technology Umass-Dartmouth. MAR 555 Lecture 11: Ocean Water Masses-Intermediate, Deep and Bottom Waters. ... 2000 m. Cold High salinity water. “Polynya” is a Russian word meaning “an enclosed area of unfrozen water surrounded by ice. Schematic of the physical process in a coastal polynya. Side view.
How much of the Southern Oceans are covered by ice?
Antarctic sea ice is one of the most variable features of the Earth system. It reaches its maximum extent of 20 million square kilometers in September and recedes to its minimum extent of 4 million square kilometers in February. Sea ice is formed through the freezing of ocean water and around Antarctica it ranges up to a few meters thick.
5 December
Antarctic Sea Ice Area Breaks Record … High?
We polar bears are ice obligates, meaning we require ice in order to live our lives normally. Because I am dependent on sea ice, I was very excited to hear that last month, the sea ice around Antarctica reached a record high maximum! ... In fact, if you look at the two poles together, we find that the Arctic sea ice loss is more than twice as large as the Antarctic sea ice increase, confirming that overall the Earth is still loosing sea ice. This is even true within Antarctica itself.
9 November
Ice Worlds
The Ice: A Journey to Antarctica by Stephen J. Pyne; University of Iowa Press, 1986. A lyrical essay on Antarctic ice in all its myriad forms, with complementary chapters on Antarctic exploration, literature, earth science, and geopolitics. Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage by Alfred Lansing; Carroll & Graf, 1986.
Antarctic Ice Streams | Feel the Heat
Antarctic Ice Streams. Posted on September 19, 2011 by David Kitchen. NASA-funded researchers have created the first complete map of the speed and direction of ice flow in Antarctica. The map, which shows glaciers flowing thousands of miles from the continent’s deep interior to its coast, will be critical for tracking future sea-level increases from climate change.
19 September
In Greenland and Antarctica, the climate conspires to maintain cool average temperatures across the entire landmass, such that enormous ice sheets drape across the landscape. Although it is difficult to imagine, just 18,000 years ago, when mammoths (and humans) ... Two large ice sheets today are the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. A large ice sheet covered about 50% of North America 18,000 years ago, extending from northern Canada to as far south as southern Ohio and Illinois. That ice mass has now completely melted away.
a glacier is any moving mass of ice on land. click here to read more on what a glacier is. B. Classification of glaciers. 1. Mountain or alpine glaciers. · formed in and restricted to the mountainous areas on Earth and comprise a small amount of the total glacial ice on Earth.
29 September
Ellen stone mosley-thompson
2013 Box, J., N. Cressie, D. Bromwich, J. Jung, M. van den Broeke, J. van Angelen, R. Forster, C. Miege, E. Mosley-Thompson, B. Vinther, and J. McConnell, 2012: Greenland ice sheet mass balance reconstruction. ... Cs and other radionuclides over Antarctica. J. Glaciology, 43(145), 435-445. 1996 Mosley-Thompson, E. Holocene Climate Changes Recorded in an East Antarctica Ice Core. Climatic Variations and Forcing mechanisms of the last 2,000. (Eds.
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29 September
Students investigate the geophysics of Antarctic ice streams
The Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project is funded by the National Science Foundation and aims to study the geobiology of subglacial lakes in West Antarctica as well as the dynamics of ice sheets. ... The retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet has begun, and it’s irreversible!’ I think it was that word, irreversible, that caught everyone’s attention.
3 July
ICE | Biomes of the World
Terrestrial ice is lost in the ablation zone via calving, sublimation, and/or evaporation. Three habitats can be recognized within the terrestrial aspect of the ice biome: the surface, the subsurface (interior of the ice mass), and beneath the ice (subglacial). The surface is exposed to sunlight and is inhabited by cold-adapted photosynthetic microbes, in particular cyanobacteria. The same cyanobacteria species found in Antarctica also occur in the Arctic.
28 February
An Error Has Occurred
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8 December
Mid-holocene warmth in the antarctic | Ice-rafted Debris
Current studies of ice balance in the Antarctic document a slight increase in the ice balance on the Antarctic continent (Jacobs, 1992), though certain locations in Antarctica are experiencing ice contraction instead of expansion. ... Hofmann, E.E., Klinck, J.M., Lascara, C.M., and Smith, D.A., 1996, Water mass distribution and circulation west of the Antarctic Peninsula and including Bransfield Strait. Antarctic Research Series, v. 70, p. 61-80. Jacobs, S.S., 1992, Is the Antarctic ice sheet growing?
McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, are consistent with predictions...
@z. ; ?2?. where r is the sea ice density and U(S,T) is the sea ice internal energy per unit mass. The conductivity was determined as the slope of scatter plots of r@U/@t A (@k/@z)(@T/@z) vs. @2 T/@z2, examples of which are shown in Figure 3. ... [28] The MY results in Figure 6 derive from array measure-ments in landfast MY ice in Antarctica, 2003. One UAF and one VUW array were installed 100 m apart, in what ice properties and examination of satellite imagery showed to be third-year ice, about 1 km off Arrival...
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Links to the page contain: disney on ice newcastle 2012....
3 May
Mining the Ice Age to Predict our Future | Bentley University
The LIS was the largest of the Ice Age ice masses, covering—and shaping—millions of square miles of present day Canada and much of the northern United States, gouging out the Great Lakes and molding all of New England as the ice sheet advanced and retreated and ultimately thinned out. ... With this new model in hand, researchers can compare it to current models being applied to today’s thinning ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland to assess their predictive accuracy.
4 September
World grapples with
Scientists with UC San Diego’s Scripps In-stitution of Oceanography announced in February that the temperature of the Southern Ocean -which surrounds Antarctica -has in-creased by a third of a degree in the past half-century. ... The northern section of the Larsen 6 ice shelf, a huge floating ice mass on the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula, shattered and separated from the continent over a 35-day period beginning Jan. 31, 2002.
"Examining Antarctica from a Geodynamic Perspective..."
I applied models of ice loading, sediment compaction, and isostasy to generate two independent ice thickness estimates for the Antarctic Ice Sheet in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. These two estimates are in good agreement, and predict ice thicknesses of approximately 1,700 meters at the AND-1B drill site at the Last Glacial Maximum.
17 December
Antarctica - a critical part of the Earth system
probably about this time significant icesheets first appeared but the much more substantial ice caps that cover Antarctica today formed over the last 15 million years. The history of humans in Antarctica is very recent. Although Captain James Cook was first to cross the Antarctic ... a very modest increase over East Antarctica, possibly as a result of a slight increase in snowfall. There are several different processes operating to cause the mass loss. In the Peninsular region, it is due to greater melting and run off, as the summer...
Supplemental lecture materials...
Ablation (wastage) - lower part of valley glacier: zone where glacier loses mass thru melting, evaporation, and sublimation. Ablation > snowfall in this region. ... G. Ice shelf: a large plate of moving ice that has slid out on top of the ocean. Can be 100s of feet thick, e.g., Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. H. Sea Ice: frozen sea water. I. Iceberg: formed by pieces of a glacier breaking off (calving). Only find icebergs around Greenland and Antarctica and a few small glaciers around the oceans.
10 June
Homo Sapiens And The Sixth Mass Extinction : Institute of...
Major mass extinctions in the history of Earth were related, among other factors, to runaway rise in the level of atmospheric CO2 (Peter Ward, Under a Green Sky: Global Warming, the Mass Extinctions of the Past, and What They Can Tell Us About Our Future. ... In some parts of Antarctica, ice sheets have been losing 30 feet a year in thickness since 2003[15].
27 August
Antarctica Archives - Blogs from VIMS Antarctic Research
The major objectives of this program are to measure changes in water mass properties throughout the full ocean water column between the two landmasses. Marine science for V2 is now complete! After the busy work of CTDs, we had a ... Delphine and her team on the Aurora have collected cores of sea ice to measure the concentration of iron and other parameters within pack ice while we steam around East Antarctica. In order to leave the ship and step foot onto the ice, safety training and inductions need to be completed.
4 December
The role of ice
Total ice (1 – 30 mm) mass and mean effective radius of the 1991 Pinatubo volcanic ash cloud as a function of time, using AVHRR split-window retrieval (Table 6) and HIRS/2 retrieval (Table 5). The total ice masses decrease with time, while the mean effective radius remains almost constant. ... Yamanouchi, T., K. Suzuki, and S. Kawaguchi (1987), Detec-tion of clouds in Antarctica from infrared multispectral data of AVHRR, J. Meteorol. Soc., 65, 949 – 961.
The Cryosphere | Mass balance: definitions
The contributions of Antarctica and Greenland separately are readily estimated. They are ~ 54 m and 6 m, respectively. * Paterson, W.S.B., 1994, The Physics of Glaciers, 3rd Edition, Pergamon Press (Elsevier), Oxford, 480 pp. ... Ablation includes all processes by which snow and ice are lost from the glacier: melting followed by runoff, sublimation (evaporation), calving, ... The mass balance at a point is then
Emory's Atlanta Events Calendar | Emory University
All events displayed in Eastern time. Change time zone below.
31 July
What on Earth | WHY ANTARCTICA?
Marc De Keyser, Patriot Hill’s resident meteorologist, explained to me that the di erence between a sea ice surface and an open water surface is that sea ice re ects sunlight, while the water absorbs it, causing both the water and the ad-jacent coastal air mass to warm. is mass of warmer air creates an increase in available water vapor, which. translates into more snow falling on Antarctica’s desert plains. e warmer air also means a greater temperature di erential between Antarctica’s cold, high plateaus and the coastal region...
The Sydney eScholarship Repository: Choose Login Method
My Sydney eScholarship. Receive email updates. Edit Profile.
10 September
Vinson Massif, Antarctica: I Chose to Climb
Climbing in Antarctica, there’s also a danger of falling into cracking crevasses of ice. The temperature was cold, but not insurmountable. "Another very nice morning today. ... The Goranssons have lived in Eliot for 18 years. Paul and Helen grew up and went to school together in Canton, Mass., got married in 1975 and have lived in various places across the globe before moving to the Seacoast.
14 December
Pages · Towson University
11 June
International Scientific Journal and Conference Articles
“Trace Elements in a Dated Ice Core From Antarctica”, Keskin, S.S., X. Huang, I. Olmez and C.C. Langway, Jr., (Conference Proceedings), Activation Analyses in Environment Protection Workshop, (September 15-18), Dubna, Russian Federation, 476-478, (1992). National Scientific Journal and Conference Articles. “Effects of Traffic Load on the Indoor Air PM Mass Concentrations in School Buildings“ Keskin, S.S., D. Ekmekcioglu, Indoor Air Quality Symposium, X. National Installation Engineering Congress, Izmir, Turkey, Apr.
Catch of the day: Scientists find fish in... | NIU Newsroom
Other NIU members of the WISSARD collaboration include geology professor Reed Scherer and graduate students Tim Hodson, Rebecca Puttkammer and Jason Coenen. The newest discoveries stem from the WISSARD project's investigation of the grounding zone of Whillans Ice Stream of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), roughly 850 kilometers (530 miles) from the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica's Ross Sea.
21 January
Antarctica could be headed for major meltdown | UCLA
That parallel raises serious concerns about the stability of ice sheets in Antarctica, according to a study published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. ... ANDRILL researchers were the first to bore holes through Antarctic ice shelves and sea ice to sample the ocean floor below. Previous research showed that ice shelves — the parts of the ice sheets that extend over water — are vulnerable to even small increases in greenhouse gases.
22 February
Sea-Level Changes Along the U.S. Atlantic Coast
It has developed from the initial ICE-1 model, which was a low-resolution (5° x 5°) model and did not include an Antarctic component (Peltier and Andrews, 1976). This was later modified to incorporate Antarctica in ICE-2 (Wu and Peltier, 1983). ... Reconstructing Relative Sea Level. due to glaciation, such as end moraines and ice thrust masses indicate that Connecticut, Rhode Island and southern Massachusetts regions were positioned at or near the ice sheet terminus (Dyke and Prest, 1987; Dyke, 2004).
Benthic marine habitats in antarctica
1. INTRODUCTION. Antarctica poses severe challenges for the benthic ecolo-gist. Most of the Southern Ocean overlies the abyssal plain, the continental shelves are unusually deep, and access is impeded by floating ice shelves or vast areas of seasonal pack ice. ... Clarke: benthic habitats. 127. nent as a whole resulting from the mass of the polar ice cap. In the past the ice-shelves and glaciers have extended further towards the edge of the continental shelves than they do now. In some cases the ice extended right to the...
Ice Cube at the South Pole
Suppose we have a cube of material, exactly one meter on a side. The mass of this cube is its density ? times its volume: For simplicity, let's say that the mass of a proton is equal to the mass of a neutron, and let's also ignore the mass of the electrons in the cube. ... The Ice Cube is a giant Cerenkov detector which uses the frozen water of the Antarctic ice cap to provide a massive target for neutrinos. It is much, much bigger than Super-Kamiokande.
28 September
Ice Age is Ideal for Humanity | SES
6: Antarctic Temperature Record for Previous Four Ice Ages. This graph shows the temperature changes over the past 450,000 years recorded in the ice core taken from the Vostok site in central Antarctica. ... Water flowing through lakes and rivers also made possible the generation of vast networks of hydroelectric power, without which aluminum likely would never have ever been mass produced and sold at an affordable price. The last ice age also carved out a large number of safe, deep-water harbors all over the world.
3 December
Miami University
Goggin Ice Center.
26 November
This negative contribution results from an increase in pre-cipitation over Antarctica, which is assumed to more than offset small increases in melting during the 21st century. With further warming the Antarctic ice sheet is likely to provide a positive ... Huybrechts and De Wolde (1999) showed that for a local Greenland tem-perature rise of 3°C the ice sheet would lose mass equiv-alent to around 1 m of global mean sea-level rise over 1000 years and that the rate of sea-level rise at the end of the 1000-year simulation remained sizeable.
Big Melt Down: Columbia Icefield
Most of this ice is concentrated in two places – Antarctic and Greenland. The remaining ice is spread across a few mountain ranges and alpine valleys. The fresh water ice that breaks away from Antarctica and Greenland flows directly into the oceans and mixes with salt water. ... Ice sheets are associated with continental glaciers and are the largest of the three types of ice masses. Today, they are found in Greenland and Antarctica.
29 September
index.html | Diving Under Ice In Antarctica
(Published in the Antarctica Sun Times, Dec. 14, 1990). Imagine yourself pulling on a cumbersome rubber suit over bulky underwear. ... You anxiously look for your partner and for the line leading upward to the escape route above. A slow ascent and an ungainly exit, and you're out again in "your" world of air, and the near lifeless Antarctic ice and snow.
13 March
Environmental Awareness: Knowing Your World - University of...
Will Melting Ice Caps Raise Sea Level? In Antarctica (where the South Pole is), most of the ice sits on land. ... Measure the height of water in the other bowl. Place the wood on top of the bowl, and place six cubes on the wood, so that meltwater will fall into the bowl. This will represent the Antarctic ice cap melting.
16 August
MELTING GLACIERS | Arctic and Antarctic sea ice
Antarctic ice sheet Ocean water around the west Antarctic Peninsula that warmed during the 1977-1998 warm cycle has caused some breaking off of shelf ice, but the volume is insignificant and is not unusual during a warm cycle. The main Antarctic ice sheet (eastern Antarctica) is not shrinking. Fifty year records at the South Pole and at the Vostock station on the central ice sheet show no significant temperature change (Fig.
A Single Ice Age Following a Genesis Flood
Epoch, which may have lasted nearly 57 000 years (Table 1). Although Vardiman (1993) and Oard (1990, 2004, 2005) indicate “fluctuation” or “surges” of a single ice mass, Snelling (2009), on the other hand, claims that there was only one ... Although Oard (2005) argues that a succession of atmo-spheric carbon dioxide and methane contents of the ice in the Vostok ice core in Antarctica give evidence for a single Ice Age, Petit and others (1999) argue that these data indicate four glacial-interglacial cycles during 420 000 years.
Rapid early Holocene retreat of a Laurentide
Ice-sheet mass balance is significantly influenced by the behaviour of outlet glaciers and ice streams, which dominate overall discharge from ice sheets1,4. Large marine-terminating ice streams that drain the Greenland ice sheet have recently undergone significant fluctuations in velocity and ... For example, retreat of palaeo-ice shelves in Antarctica and marine-based margins of the Laurentide ice sheet during deglaciation14,15 are potentially analo-gous to the present deglaciation of Greenland and West Antarctica.
Ice thickness effects on Aquarius brightness temperatures over Antarctica. Miriam Pablos1,2, Mar?a Piles1,2, Veronica Gonzalez-Gambau2,3, Adriano Camps1,2, and Merce` Vall-llossera1,2. 1Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Polite ... 10.1002/2014JC010151. Ulaby, F., R. Moore, and A. Fung (1981), Microwave Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Radiometry, Remote Sens., Addison-Wesley, Advanced Book Program/World Science Division, Reading, Mass. Vaughan, D. G., et al.
Chapter 2
as the mass of the Greenland ice sheet alone. In Exercise 2,2 it was shown. 1. ... Extrapolating ftom that result it can be inferred that the metting of both the Greenland and antarctic ice sheets would cayse global sea level to rise by 11.6 ? 7 = 79 m. 2.12 (a) Describe how the level of the lake in the previous exercise would vary in response to time variations in precipitation of the form.
Antarctica, Emperor penguins on ice
Paul Souders/Getty Images.
24 December
Lecture 2: The Peopling of the Americas
1. Formation a. The two main ice masses of the Wisconsin Age, the Cordilleran and the Canadian (Laurentian) ice masses, advanced and receded at intervals throughout the duration of the glaciation. Four glacial periods alternated with 4 inter-glacial or ice-free periods. ... Antarctica ice is a remnant of that period. a. The land bridge was clearly in existence for 2 protracted periods in the last 50,000 years. (1) Between 35,000 and 45,000 years ago, when sea levels was as much as 470 feet below modern levels.
13 December
Ancient Microbes in the Antarctic Ice
Four kilometers under the vast sheet of ice that covers Antarctica lies a large freshwater lake, sealed under the ice and sequestered for the last 420,000 years. ... The characterization of microbes from the Antarctic ice and eventually from Vostok Lake will take many years, but will surely provide important new information on a microbial world held dormant for the last million years. 1999 Science in the Real World: Microbes in Action.
AIM - Press Room
Each year, an eerie mass of bright blue clouds descends over Antarctica, as sunlight is reflected though dense layers of ice crystals to create a brilliant, glowing haze that can be seen from space. ... Scientists are yet to confirm the cause of this change in pattern of night shining clouds, but there are speculations that this may be as a result of global warming. Additionally, the impact of this change on the melting of Antarctic polar ice cap is still ambiguous.
22 February
Frontiers in understanding
For example, how is the loss of coastal glacial ice mass in Antarctica linked to ozone depletion, changes in the Southern Annular Mode, sea ice feedbacks, or is it responding to an integration of all these? How can the scientific com-munity address uncertainty in assessing the individual roles of snow and ice cover, atmospheric and oceanic circulation, and cloud cover and water vapor in recent observations of warming near-surface air temperatures?
Noble Gas Geochemistry Lab | 3He and 21Ne in Ice Cores
Noble Gas Mass Spectrometer. ... The core barrel of the DISC Ice Core Drill in West Antarctica, being used to drill a deep ice core (WAIS DIvide Ice Core) to study the detailed history of the last ice age in West Antarctica.
8 March
Hossein Nahavandchi - NTNU
Current Research: Greenland Ice-mass balance from satellite gravity observations. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission provides temporal variations of Earth gravity field with a period of around one month. ... Arctic and Antarctic Mass balance (Ice loss) from satellite gravity and satellite altimetry measurements.
9 July
Density-Driven Downwelling
of organic matter; the older the water mass, the longer it has been away from the surface, the lower its O2 content and the higher its CO2 content. NADW formation and clihmate. glacial period (“ice age”) interglacial (warm) period. ... after 34 Ma (Eocene-Oligocene boundary) … – Drake Passage opened, land bridge disappeared. – Antarctic Circumpolar Current began to flow » isolated Antarctic continent » allowed glacial ice sheets to form on Antarctica.
Antarctica | "Ice"sential Facts
Antarctica. "Ice"sential Facts. Holds 85% of world's fresh water. Considered a continent because there is land under the ice. Holds world's record lowest temperature(-128.6 degrees F). For six months of the year, there are 24 hours of sunshine each day.
16 November
Other regions of Antarctica are exhibiting much smaller rates of warming—and some, such as the Ross Sea (12), are even experiencing trends in the opposite direction—but climate models predict strong warming and circumpolar sea ice retreat around Antarctica over the next century (13). ... 19. E. Rignot et al., Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modelling.
Board on Atmospheric Studies and Climate
All masses are gravitationally attracted to other masses. The great bulks of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets actually have pulled ocean water toward them, so that their coastal sea levels are notably higher than they would be without that gravitational attraction. ... These normalized global sea-level variations were computed for the case of present-day ice mass variations in (a) Antarctica and (b) Greenland, as well as (c) melting of the mounting glaciers and ice sheets tabulated by Meier.
Q & a for climate skeptics
Some recent results from NASA's GRACE experiment, measuring the gravitational pull of the massive Antarctic ice sheets, have indicated that on the whole, ice mass is being lost. Second, ice-sheet thickening is not inconsistent with warming! ... For example, we see in ice core records from Antarctica and Greenland that the world cycled in and out of glacial periods over 120Kyr cycles.
Iwerks ® Film: Antarctica
v Antarctica’s dry valleys provide scientists with sites suitable for testing planetary probes under conditions approximating those of Mars. v Core samples of Antarctic ice help scientists unravel important clues about past global and climatic conditions and investigate past cooling and warming trends, as well as significant recent changes brought about, perhaps, by human activity on our planet. Sunshine State Standards Addressed: Kindergarten
Antarctica and Greenland During the Last Glacial
sotgoyicwhiiothmtehtreyrfeosrutlthsefaodrd1u,cwt we icthan[nNoi(tmunnte)q2]uiivnoacnaallly-. rule out a 2/1 stoichiometry. Field desorption mass. ... Timing of Millennial-Scale Climate Change in Antarctica and Greenland During the Last. Glacial Period. Thomas Blunier1* and Edward J. Brook2 A precise relative chronology for Greenland and West Antarctic paleotempera-ture is extended to 90,000 years ago, based on correlation of atmospheric methane records from the Greenland Ice...
Subglacial lakes in Antarctica
Subglacial lakes in Antarctica: Linking Ice Sheet Dynamics, Tectonics, and Biology with Aerogeophysical Methods Dr. Michael Studinger Columbia University. More than 150 subglacial lakes have been identified beneath the Antarctic ice sheet and the number continues to increase. Buried beneath several miles of ice these lakes range in size from Lake Ontario to lakes the size of Manhattan.
Life in the
Life in the freezer. DID YOU KNOW? ¦ The low altitude ice-free habitats of Antarctica, the dry valleys, are often used as model systems for extraterrestrial habitats, such as Mars. ¦ Land dwelling vertebrate fauna such as penguins and seals can only be found at the coasts of Antarctica. ... The Antarctic continent comprises several smaller land masses covered by ice.
The Theory of Glacial Ages
In contrast, an ice sheet is a mass of ice that is not. restricted to a valley but covers a large area of land (over. 1. 50,000 square kilometers). Ice sheets are associated with. mum 18.2. continental glaciation. Only two places on earth now have ice sheets, Greenland and Antarctica. ... Antarctic Ice Sheer PI reroonsi-segment of the ice sheet,lubri-. cated by w r r r r r q i a base, slidea as a mass onto thc ocean surface. Before the 1- floating rlab of ice can be broken.
Density of Ice
To understand the properties of ice, we need to think in terms of a change in volume with a constant weight or mass. Density Comparison to Water: In chemistry, the density of many substances is compared to the density of water. Does ice float on water or sink in the water? Everyone knows what happens in the case of ice cubes in a glass of water. Look at the graphic on the left.
29 February
Paper for IASCP2000
In turn, changes in the characteristic and extent of Antarctic sea-ice will affect the vertical structure of the Southern Ocean. These oceanic variations are likely to be felt widely around the globe because the Southern Ocean as unifying link for exchanges of water masses at all depths between the world’s major ocean basins, transmits climate anomalies around the globe (White and Peterson, 1996). Antarctica and Southern Ocean are the home of 54 species of sea-birds (some numbering in millions)...
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3 April
Temperature's rising beneath West Antarctic ice sheet
High heat flow below the West Antarctic ice sheet may also help explain the presence of lakes beneath it and why parts of the ice sheet flow rapidly as ice streams. Water at the base of the ice streams is thought to provide the lubrication that speeds their motion, carrying large volumes of ice out onto the floating ice shelves at the edges of the ice sheet. ... Melting ice shelves. Antarctica's huge ice sheets are fed by snow falling in the interior of the continent.
22 October
Ein kleiner, schwarzer Punkt am weisslichen
Accepted for the Council: Carolyn R. Hodges Vice Provost and Dean of the Graduate School. (Original signatures are on file with official student records.) Ein kleiner, schwarzer Punkt am wei?lichen Himmel: Antarctica & Ice in German Expressionism. ... Amherst, Mass: University of Massachusetts Press, 1990. Brunotte, Ulrike. Maennlichkeiten und Moderne: Geschlecht in den Wissenskulturen um 1900.
Quotations on Global Warming : University of St. Thomas
Researchers at the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) reported (September 1994) "the greening of Antarctica" as the ice recedes and summers lengthen. ... Soaring ocean temperatures in the Caribbean have caused the first mass die-off of coral in the region for 3,000 years. Scientists suspect that the record temperature of 31.5 deg Celsius, recorded in 1998 off Belize, was the result of global warming and the El Nino climate phenomenon.
3 March
Modal analysis of the ice-structure interaction problem
It became a goal of this study to add a point mass at the ice floe height of impact that would change the dynamics of the ice-structure interaction. As a starting point, it became necessary to calculate a realistic mass of this frozen rubble formation. Based on an array of photographs and observations from other studies, a set of dimensions of the ice point mass was developed.
Subsurface melting of a free-oating Antarctic iceberg
When ice melts in sea water, two opposing effects on density result. Heat transferred from ocean water to ice raises the ice temperature and effects a phase change, which requires L (344 kJ kgA1) times the mass of ice to be melted, where L is the heat of fusion. ... Effect of glacial ice melting on the Antarctic Surface Water. Nature 277, 469–471. Jacobs, S.S., Helmer, H.H., Doake, C.S.M., Jenkins, A., Frolich, R.M., 1992. Melting of ice shelves and the mass balance of Antarctica. J. Glaciol. 38, 375–387.
Glaciers and | Causes of Ice ages
Greenland Ice Sheet. jokulhaup flood Malaspina glacier in southeastern Alaska is a piedmont glacier. Thermal classification. • Warm glaciers (Temperate glaciers). – Glacier in which the ice is at or near its pressure-melting point throughout the ice mass. ... • Glaciers with basal ice at melting temperature tend to move faster, erode more, and carry greater loads than polar glaciers. Mass Balance (Glacial Budget). • Accumulation = water equivalent of ice and snow added to a glacier over a period of time in question.
Carnegie Department of Global Ecology
The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 m in global sea-level rise. We show in simulations with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil fuel emissions of 10,000 giga–metric tonnes of carbon (GtC), Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 m per century during the first millennium.
21 August
Kristy Leissle: An Antarctic 'Summer' on the Ice... - UW Bothell
Happy New Year from Antarctica. Happy New Year to everyone at UWB from Port Lockroy! The last time I wrote, we were awaiting the arrival of HMS Protector, the British Royal Navy ship that does ice patrol in the Antarctic. As it turned out, Protector sailed away, to return several days later when the ice eased up enough for them to get in and deliver the cargo they had brought for us from the UK.
6 December
For example, estimates of inland East Antarctic radar-attenuation rates are typically less than half (in units of dB kmA1) of those in West Antarctica, where ice is typically thinner and the surface temperature is warmer [MacGregor et al., 2007, 2011; Jacobel et al., 2009, 2010; Zirizzotti et al., 2014]. ... To evaluate the recent mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, knowledge of the spatiotemporal variability of accumulation rates over the past millennium is valuable.
Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis
• New data since the TAR now show that losses from the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica have very likely contributed to sea level rise over 1993 to 2003 (Table SPM-0). Flow speed has increased for some Greenland and Antarctic outlet glaciers, which drain ice from the interior of the ice sheets. The corresponding increased ice sheet mass loss has often followed thinning, reduction or loss of ice shelves or loss of floating glacier tongues.
Variability of epipelagic macrozooplankton/micronekton...
While both D. antarctica and chaetognaths comprise a consistently patchy proportion of the bio-mass over the 24-h sampling regime, T. macrura in this study exhibited reverse diel vertical migration, with greater abundances in surface waters during the day than at night. ... American Geo-physical Union, Washington, DC, pp 257–272 Garrison DL (1991) Antarctic sea ice biota. Am Zool 31:17–33 Garrison DL, Buck KR (1989) Protozooplankton in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica: abundance and distribution in the ice edge zone.
Recent glacier surface snowpack melt in Novaya
Quantifying the mass balance of ice caps on Severnaya Zemlya, Russian High Arctic II: Modeling the flow of the Vavilov Ice Cap under the present climate. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 38:13-20, doi: 10.2307/4095822. ... Strong surface melting preceded collapse of Antarctic Peninsula ice shelf. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L12815, doi: 10.1029/2005GL023247. Velicogna, I. (2009). Increasing rates of ice mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets revealed by GRACE.
Carolina Digital Repository - Evolution of the East Antarctic...
Nearly 1000 km of high-resolution single-channel seismic (SCS) reflection data and 1000 km of multi-channel seismic (MCS) data were acquired in the Ross Sea, Antarctica where a large iceberg, C-19, calved from the Ross Ice Shelf in May of 2002. ... During the Oligocene, prior to the onset of widespread glaciation from the East Antarctic Ice Shelf on the continental shelf, this area experienced multiple cycles (at least 10) of ice sheet advance/retreat representing an ice sheet that is approaching but not reaching the C-19...
15 April
New Page 1
ISCAT II Antarctica Map. Investigation of Sulfur Chemistry of the Antarctic Troposphere ) (ISCAT) was originally designed as a study of the transport of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emitted from Southern Ocean and transported to the South Pole. Understanding how the sulfur arrives is important in understanding how sulfur in incorporated into Antarctic ice and thus influences ice core composition.
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