Ozone depletion

An undeniable problem in Antarctica
When NASA scientists reanalyzed their Antarctic measurements, they discovered a gigantic hole in the ozone layer — a region of depleted ozone the size of the United States! Our protective shield from solar radiation had already been damaged even more than scientists had thought possible. The ozone depletion in Antarctica was real, but why was it so much larger than any of the models had predicted?
23 August
Stratospheric ozone depletion
Notes on stratospheric ozone depletion follow. The saga of ozone depletion is a classic example of unanticipated consequences from human emissions of what were thought to be inert, ecologically harmless gases. Notes are organized according to the outline given below. ... In addition, this NOAA website contains clearly writren answers to 20 questions about stratospheric ozone and its depletion. You can see animations of the ozone "hole" over Antarctica here.
21 February
Stratospheric ozone depletion by CFCs
• Ozone depletion is global. • Highest at high latitudes. Theozonehole.com. ... • In stratosphere • Moves O3 from. regions of production (tropics) to higher lats • Brings warmer, O3-rich air to polar regions • Expected to intensify as climate warms • BUT, Antarctica is different… Trends in the ozone hole: Vertical profiles.
Environmental e ects of ozone depletion and its interactions...
Ozone and UV changes. The smaller ozone hole in the spring of 2002 should not be interpreted as a sign of early recovery of the ozone layer. The extent of Antarctic ozone depletion varies greatly from year to year depending on meteorological conditions. ... Ecol., 2003, 45, 353– 361. 18 L. M. Avery, R. I. Lewis Smith and H. M. West, Response of rhizosphere microbial communities associated with Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica) to UV radiation, Polar Biol., 2003, 26, 525–529. 19 P. Convey, P. J. A. Pugh...
TABLE 2 Metrics for Estimating Ozone Depletion
Characterizing uncertainty in expert assessments: ozone depletion and the West Antarctic ice sheet. Jessica O’Reilly,1 Keynyn Brysse,2? Michael Oppenheimer2,3 and Naomi Oreskes4. Large-scale assessments have become an important vehicle for organizing, interpreting, and presenting scientic information relevant to environmental policy.
Ozone depletion | Ozone hole – Antarctic ozone hole
• the Antarctic ozone “hole” is a region of extreme ozone loss (up to 60%) that has been appearing since the 1970s. • hole begins to develop each August and culminates by early October (southern hemisphere Spring). • eventually disappears by early December. ... depletion. 1. Montreal Protocol (1987) and Montreal Accord (1997) pose strict limits on freon and halon emissions. • goal to decrease stratospheric Cl to levels as before ozone hole (2 ppb) by 2060.
Fundamental differences between Arctic and Antarctic
he extensive springtime depletion of Antarctic ozone has attracted both public and scientific interest since its discovery (1) and explanation in the 1980s. The ozone hole has been linked to the coupling of human-made chlorofluorocarbons with surface chemistry on and in polar stratospheric ... 4 and references therein). The colder tem-peratures and longer duration of overlap between cold temper-atures and sunlight allow photochemistry to attack ozone for many weeks, and lead to the extreme depletions obtained in Antarctica.
Ozone Measurements | Measured Ozone Depletion
Between 1991 and 1993 ozone depletion appeared to accelerate. Satellite and ground-based measurements showed a remarkable decline in stratospheric ozone for 1992 and early 1993, a full 4% below the average value for the preceding twelve years and 2-3% below the lowest values observed in the earlier period. ... In 1987 the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment determined that the ozone hole over Antarctica was caused by anthropogenic chlorine.
31 August
Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere
Ozone concentration in stratosphere is. depleted seasonally over Antarctica and the Arctic. lower overall thinning everywhere except over the tropics. Thinning of the ozone layer. Ozone depletion in the stratosphere is considered to be. a serious long-term threat to.
21 April
Antarctic Ozone Depletion
Springtime ozone depletion over the Antarctic results in increased UVB in local marine environments. It has been established that decreases in pri-mary productivity occur with decreases in ozone concentrations, but the impact of increased UVB on the functioning and stability of the ecosystem has not yet been determined.
Ozone Depletion FAQ Part III: The Antarctic Ozone Hole
This part deals specifically with springtime antarctic ozone depletion (and with the similar but smaller effects seen in the Arctic spring). More general questions about ozone and ozone depletion, including the definitions of many of the terms used here, are dealt with in parts I and II. ... Why be concerned about an ozone hole over antarctica? 11.) Is there an ozone hole in the arctic?
29 August
Antarctic ozone depletion and trends in tropopause
13: 164–168 (2012) Published online 29 May 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/asl.384. Antarctic ozone depletion and trends in tropopause. Rossby wave breaking. T. Ndarana,1,2 D. W. Waugh,1* L. M. Polvani,3,4 G. J. P. Correa5 and E. P. Gerber6. ... Furthermore, modeling studies indi-cate that stratospheric ozone depletion is the primary cause for the changes during southern spring and sum-mer (e.g. Son et al., 2009; McLandress et al., 2011; Polvani et al., 2011).
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion and Climate Change
The urgency to restrict CFC production was muted in the early 1980s because theoretical studies indicated that ozone depletion would likely become severe only decades into the future.4,6 This changed, however, in 1985 with the discovery, by Farman and coworkers,7 of severe and worsening ozone depletion over Halley Station, Antarctica.
Catalytic destruction of O3 | Ozone Depletion Processes
The net result of the two reactions is the depletion of ozone and atomic oxygen. The catalytic cycle involving chlorine and ozone was not discovered until 1973, and not until 1985 did Farman, Gardiner, and Shanklin report loss of large amounts of ozone over Halley Bay, Antarctica, in "Large Losses of Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal ClOx/NOx Interaction."
13 November
Ozone depletion
Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earth's stratosphere since the late 1970s; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions during the same period. ... The especially rapid ozone depletion in Antarctica had previously been dismissed as a measurement error.
13 October
The search for signs of recovery of the
Today, controls on ozone-depleting substances often focus on returning EESC to the level that prevailed in 1980. The turnaround in EESC suggests that the early signs of an ozone layer recovery may be detectable in the early part of this century12,13. ... 6. Farman, J., Gardiner, B. & Shanklin, J. Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction. Nature 315, 207–-210 (1985). 7. Solomon, S., Garcia, R. R., Rowland, F. S. & Wuebbles, D. J. On the depletion of Antarctic ozone.
The Inuence of Ultraviolet-B Radiation on Growth...
INTRODUCTION. Stratospheric ozone depletion by anthropogenic chlorouorocar-bons has led to enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280–320 nm) reaching the Earth’s surface (1–3). This increase is most pronounced over Antarctica in the spring where biologically effective UV levels have increased 130% since 1980 (3). While these ozone depletion events are most severe in early spring and are typically centered over the Antarctic continent...
International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric...
Springtime Antarctic Ozone depletion due to man-made halogen compounds, known as “the ozone hole” has been large and occurred repeatedly for more than two decades. ... During the next few decades, the fate of the Arctic ozone layer will depend partly as in Antarctica, on the evolution of atmospheric temperatures at the altitudes of the ozone layer.
The Antarctic Ozone Hole: A Unique
Although ozone depletion is greatest in the Antarctic, significant depletion has also been observed in the Arctic and at midlatitudes in both hemispheres. Ozone deple-tion enhances the ultraviolet light at the planet surface and thereby can damage ecosys-tems and some crops as well as increasing the incidence of human eye cataracts and skin cancer. ... The most rapid ozone loss occurs in Antarctica during September because both cold temperatures and sunlight are involved in the chemistry of Antarctic ozone depletion.
Record area of ozone depletion
The area of ozone depletion over Antarctica increased through late 1990’s. The spring & summer ozone levels over Antarctica decreased steeply through late 1990’s, then show slow recovery. Movie link. Tropospheric CFC levels.
The Ozone Depletion Phenomenon | The Ozone Depletion...
Each year since the late 1970s, much of the protective layer of stratospheric ozone above Antarctica has disappeared during September, creating what is popularly known as the ozone hole. The Antarctic hole now measures about 9 million square miles, nearly the size of North America. Less dramatic, but still significant, depletion of ozone levels has been recorded around the globe.
9 October
When will the Antarctic ozone hole recover?
[2] As ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) decline, full ozone hole recovery over Antarctica is expected about 2050 [Hofmann et al., 1997; World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 2003]. ... Res., 102(D7), 8931 – 8944, doi:10.1029/96JD03749. Huck, P. E., A. J. McDonald, G. E. Bodeker, and H. Struthers (2005), Interannual variability in Antarctic ozone depletion controlled by plane-tary waves and polar temperature, Geophys.
Ozone-Layer Depletion: Its Consequences, the Causal...
Antarctic ozone” (see Table 2). Atmospheric Dynamics: Of Winds and Weather. A third hypothesis concerning ozone de-pletion over Antarctica (which occurs only in the spring) is that, in combination with chemicals, dynamic atmospheric processes contribute to ozone-layer erosion. ... 41. Solomon S, Garcia R R, Rowland F S & Wuebbks D J. On the depletion of Antarctic ozone.
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion. Structure of the Atmosphere. Exosphere. ... • In the early 80’s, measurements of ozone over Antarctica showed a significant decrease in the total column ozone during the Austral spring. The effect lasted from mid-September to late November at which time the ozone “hole” recovered and concentrations returned to normal values.
Twenty Questions and Answers About the Ozone Layer
Q.20 Q9: What are the chlorine and bromine reactions that destroy stratospheric ozone?  Q.24 Q10: Why has an “ozone hole” appeared over Antarctica when ozone-depleting substances are present throughout the stratosphere?  Q.27 Section III: STRATOSPHERIC OZONE DEPLETION Q11: How severe is the depletion of the Antarctic ozone layer? 
Non-annular atmospheric circulation change induced by...
Our main focus is on model experiments that give insight into the linkage between Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletion and SIE. Coupled atmosphere-ocean mod-els are the foundation for most climate initiatives. ... Figure 3c shows that the models simulated well the observed deepening of the ASL during the autumn (although its centre is located off the coast of Antarctica rather than inland), which suggests that anthro-pogenic forcing is primarily responsible for the circulation changes.
Today (Tues 2/24) | CFCs and ozone destruction
Units for Ozone Measurement. Ozone depletion in Antarctica. How is Ozone Formed. Natural Ozone Destruction. ... • GOOD • Stratrospheric Ozone • Absorbs dangerous. UV sunlight • Being depleted • 25-30 km altitude. • BAD • Tropospheric Ozone • Photochemical. Oxidant • Smog.
ozonedepletion | I. The ozone layer
Second, ozone depletion is enhanced over Antarctica because polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) develop over the South Pole during the winter (our summer months). ... Combined with the fact that little ozone is forming because the input of light to break apart O2 is minimal, these reactions lead to sever ozone depletion. C. How does ozone depletion over Antarctica affect me?
11 May
The Ozone Hole Tour
This site is a description of the ozone depletion problem with maps, movies and computer simulations of the Antarctic ozone hole. ... Subject: Geoscience:Atmospheric Science Grade Level: College Lower (13-14), College Upper (15-16) Theme: Teach the Earth:Course Topics:Atmospheric Science Topics: Human Dimensions/Resources, AtmosphereKeywords: ozone depletion, Antarctica, Ozone Layer Depletion, University of Cambridge.
4 May
In the Ozone | Citizen Scientist
Alas, the size of this year’s ozone hole over Antarctica was among the largest ever.[1] And the remaining ozone layer was exceptionally thin. Frankly, I was surprised: the ozone hole had shown signs of stabilization in recent years, and a turn-around seems overdue. ... Science 326: 123-125. Rowland, F.S. 1989. Chlorofluorocarbons and the depletion of stratospheric ozone. American Scientist 77: 36-45. Solomon, S. 1990. Progress towards a quantitative understanding of Antarctic ozone depletion.
4 November
Action on Ozone | Ozone depletion
The result is the ‘ozone hole’, an area of sharp decline in ozone concentrations over most of Antarctica for about two or three months during the southern hemisphere spring. Ozone depletion is accelerated by atmospheric circulation, which moves CFCs in the stratosphere away from the tropics towards both poles.
TABLE 1. Common stratospheric ozone-depleting sub-stances
Ozone concentrations over Antarctica have been at record lows for each successive year beginning in October 1992. Using high-flying aircraft and satellites, scientists have found not only decreased ozone levels associated with the hole, but also increased concentrations of the chlorine-containing molecules that destroy ozone in the laboratory. Few scientists now dispute that ozone depletion over the Antarctic is occurring and that it is due to CFCs and related anthropogenic chemicals released into the atmosphere.
26 June
Ozone Depleti List of ozone depleting substances Table 8. Hal Antarctic Oz Antarctic Vorte Strong circulatory winds around Antarctica isola Ice crystals Antarctic Winter reactions Polar vortex: -90 oC e Ice clouds ClONO2 + H2O e HOCl + HNO3 HOCl + HCl o Cl2 + H2O. Spring reactions Cl2 + hu e 2 Cl in early spring Cl + O3 e ClO + O3 destructive loop HNO3 + Cl e ClONO2 in photocatalysis.
PPT
Overview of the Antarctic ozone depletion issue
It is in this region that the lowest total ozone values ever measured, below 150 Dobson Units (DU) in issue spring and associated scenarios. of this Guest Editors In their report, the British Antarctic Survey scientists hypothesized that increasing chlorine levels in the lower stratosphere might be Antarctica has been ... The overwhelming response to the call for papers indicates that the Antarctic ozone depletion has intrigued scientists as well as the general public. Despite the number of public pronouncements, no clear link between...
24 September
4. Media coverage on ozone depletion
The formation of the Antarctic ozone hole occurs each spring over latitudes poleward of 60°S, and is the result of a unique combination of meteorology and chemistry that together produce the conditions necessary for the rapid depletion of ozone in the lower stratosphere. This phenomenon is largely restricted to the area over Antarctica, although so- called ‘mini holes’ have been identified over the Arctic latitudes.
Environmental Transport and Fate | The Antarctic Ozone Hole
The Antarctic Ozone Hole was discovered by the British Antarctic Survey from data obtained with a ground-based instrument at a measuring station located in Halley Bay, Antarctica, in the 1981-1983 period. ... Ozone depletion typically begins in late July and early August with an observed ozone hole size of 10 million square kilometers by mid-August. The “ozone hole” is defined as the area in the polar latitudes where the total column ozone amounts are less than 220 Dobson Units (DU).
Ozone Depletion
Ozone Depletion. From the notes in the Layers of the Atmosphere, we learned that the homosphere, or lower atmosphere, is divided into three layers. The troposphere, closest to the earth, is where daily weather phenomenon occurs and where air pollution and acid rain is distributed. ... Stratospheric ozone depletion occurs when O3 molecules interact with chlorine-based compounds such as chlorofluorocarbons, also known as CFCs, and halons.
Milestones in the History of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
Long-term changes in Antarctic total ozone are demonstrated with this series of total ozone maps derived from satellite observations. Each map is an average during October, the month of maximum ozone depletion over Antarctica. In the 1970s, no ozone hole was observed as defined by a significant region with total ozone values less than 220 DU (dark blue and purple colors).
Ozone Depletion
Ozone depletion has been especially noticeable over Antarctica. ... The ozone hole over Antarctica is not exactly a total depletion of ozone but a major reduction in the amount of ozone found in the stratosphere over the South Pole. Recent ozone levels in the stratosphere over Antarctica have decreased and are lower than they were in 1975.
12 August
What are the health risks of a depleted ozone layer?
Ozone depletion reaches to lower latitudes (especially the southern tip of South America and New Zealand). The Antarctic ozone hole opens and closes seasonally. In the southern hemisphere winter (June-Sept.), super cooling of the stratosphere ... How is atmospheric ozone monitored? Atmospheric ozone can be measured through ground-based instruments placed at strategic points such as Antarctica or by airborne instruments, such as those mounted on balloons, high-altitude aircraft, rockets, and satellites.
8 January
For this reason, ozone depletion is likely to have a greater impact on _local_ ecosystems, such as terrestrial plants and the Antarctic marine phytoplankton, than on humans or their livestock. ... Wavelength-resolving instruments, such as the spectroradiometers being used in Antarctica, Argentina, and Toronto, are the most informative, as they allow one to distinguish the effects of ozone trends from those due to clouds and aerosols.
8 October
Physical Chemistry Assignment 3: Chlorine Oxides and...
Severe depletion of polar stratospheric ozone is observed in Antarctic winter, creating an ozone hole, as illustrated in Figure 1. The ozone hole is most prominent in the Antarctic during the months from August through November, as shown for the past several years in Figure 2. ... d.) In the polar regions, severe depletion of ozone is observed in part due to processes that take place in polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). What are the primary components of these clouds (there may be more than one type)?
Boomerang Kids Rely on their Parents: Is It a Positive Trend?
commas (,) help the reader be able to separate one item from another when many items are listed and/or many ‘and’s are used in one sentence. A comma right before an ‘and’ (…,and…) is very helpful to see where the previous item (eg. phrase) ends and the last item starts, particularly if many ‘and’s have been used in the sentence: …(1)the processes behind Antarctic ozone depletion, (2)the Earth’s response to incoming solar.
Ozone hole stretches to record size
paragraph 5 Antarctic ozone depletion starts in July, when sunlight triggers chemical reactions in cold air trapped over the South Pole during the Antarctic winter. It intensifies during August and September before tailing off as temperatures rise in late November or early December. Depletion of the ozone layer over Antarctica and the Arctic is being monitored because ozone protects Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation.
3 July
Mitigation of 21st century Antarctic sea ice loss by stratospheric
studies have demonstrated that ozone depletion over the South Pole has had a major impact on the atmospheric cir-culation in recent decades [see, e.g., Polvani et al., 2011a, and references therein]. Notably, polar ozone depletion is believed to have caused a substantial poleward shift of the midlatitude jet in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) summer-time, which is often referred to as a positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), as recently reviewed in Thompson et al.
Ozon Depletion | Visualization of the Ozone Hole
The Protocol required the that CFC production would be reduced to one-half of the 1986 levels by 1998. Based upon a growing understanding of the cause of the ozone hole and the potential for global ozone depletion, approximately 100 nations in 1990, agreed to a complete ban on the use ... 3b: For the Antarctica Ozone Hole give the approximate date and lowest concentration of ozone, in Dobson units, observed. Comment about the ozone hole growing in area size and the minimum concentration as the years have incrreased.
1 December
Very Short-Lived Ozone-Depleting Compounds
• Springtime Antarctic ozone depletion due to halogens has been large throughout the last decade. Since the early 1990s, the minimum total column (i.e., overhead) ozone amount has been ~100 Dobson units (DU). The monthly total column ozone amounts in September and October have continued to be about 40 to 50% below pre-ozone-hole values, with up to a local 70% decrease for periods of a week or so.
Carbon monoxide in the antarctic atmosphere: Observations
Parrish, A., R.L. de Zafra, M. Jaramillo, B. Connor, P.M. Solomon, and J.W. Barrett. 1988. Extremely low N20 concentrations in the springtime stratosphere at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Nature, 332,53-55. ... Progress towards a quantitative understanding of antarctic ozone depletion. Nature, 347, 347-354. Carbon monoxide in the antarctic atmosphere: Observations of decreasing concentrations.
T wenty q uestions and a nswers | Ozone and Oxygen
Q10: Why has an “ozone hole” appeared over Antarctica when ozone-depleting gases are present throughout the stratosphere? Ozone-depleting gases are present throughout the stratospheric ozone layer because they are transported great distances by atmospheric air motions. The severe depletion of the Antarctic ozone layer known as the “ozone hole” occurs because of the special weather conditions that exist there and nowhere else on the globe.
Ozone Depletion Web Module
Ozone Depletion Web Module. Anjan K. Chakrabarti Alejandra De Obeso Dr. Nihat M. Gurmen Prof. H. Scott Fogler. ... There is a significant hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica, due to several chemical and geophysical conditions. This module will focus on the influence of CFCs, NOx, and Br radicals in the final concentration of O3 molecules in the stratosphere.
MEA Fact Sheet: Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
Every springtime in Antarctica (fall in the northern hemisphere) more than 60 percent of stratospheric ozone is de- stroyed for a period of several months, creating what is commonly known as the hole in the ozone layer. Stratospheric ozone levels in the Arctic region have been unusually low in six of the last nine years in late winter and spring, with typically a l 5 percent depletion. ... The annual springtime "Antarctic ozone hole" is caused by anthropogenic chlorine- and bromine-containing chemicals.
28 August
The Hole Story - Introduction-Damage from Ozone Depletion
Ozone depletion allows more ultraviolet radiation through to the earth. ... At the moment Queensland is the most susceptible state because it is the closest to the equator and the amount of ultraviolet radiation is stronger there. However the ozone hole comes up from Antarctica so it affects cities that are further south such as Hobart, Melbourne and Sydney in that order.
11 September
Identify any natural pathways for ozone depletion
1. Is all stratospheric ozone depletion induced by human activity? ... 2. Write a balanced chemical reaction that accounts for ozone depletion. Write your group’s chemical reaction on the board. 3. Why Antarctica? What conditions over this continent accentuate ozone depletion, leading to its detection?
Antarctic Ozone Depletion. Average. vertical. ... Antarctic Ozone Seasonality. Sources of Stratospheric Chlorine. Based on early 1990s estimates (UNEP/WMO).
PPTX
Ozone Depletion
Ozone Depletion, continued. So as far as were concerned, less ozone means more radiation, and of course, more radiation means more cancer and other harmful repercussions to the environment. ... However, even more UV gets through the 'hole' in the ozone layer. The CFC caused "hole," which is centered of Antarctica, is really just a region of very low ozone concentration.
30 March
Report: Antarctic ozone hole sets record
Friday, September 12, 2003 Posted: 9:50 AM EDT (1350 GMT) LONDON (Reuters) -- The gaping, man-made hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica has hit record proportions for this time of year and could get bigger still within the next few days, a leading scientist said on Friday. ... However, he said the general thinning of the ozone layer elsewhere because of chemical depletion was almost certainly involved in the rise.
Lecture 39 | Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
Stratospheric ozone depletion is the process whereby stratospheric ozone is reduced in concentration by manmade chemicals, primarily chlorinated fluorocarbons or CFCs. ... In 1985, eleven years after the Rowland and Molina paper in Nature, Joseph Farman published the results of a 18 year study of the ozone column over Antarctica showing that the ozone column had decreased from 300 Dobson units in 1957 to 200 DU in 1985, a 35% decrease.
10 May
Minerva Access is the Institutional Repository of The...
The ozone hole, which had been displaced from over the South Pole earlier in Novem-ber, is over Antarctica on 26 November (Figure 2a) and has been stretched. By 29 November (Figure 2b), the ozone hole has been split into two parts, with one part directly over. ... Atkinson, R. J., W. A. Matthews, P. A. Newman, and R. A. Plumb, Evi-dence for the mid-latitude impact of Antarctic ozone depletion, Nature, 340, 290 – 293, 1989. Brinksma, E. J., et al., Analysis of record-low ozone values during the 1997 winter over Lauder, New...
Syllabus for Global Environmental Issues, EVS 205
Ozone depletion Antarctica Canada, N America, Europe Brief comments on causes--anthropological in nature A look at the www Web assignment for semester Do we (you, me, our children) have an environmental problem re ozone? (Lectures following will present a more detailed (that is, a better understanding) of the series of processes discussed thus far.)
9 August
Ozone Depletion and Climate Change
Stratospheric ozone depletion, which includes the Antarctic ozone hole, is caused by emissions of ozone depleting substances (ODSs). The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is a landmark agreement that has successfully reduced global ODS emissions. Less widely known is the fact that ODSs are greenhouse gases that contribute to the radiative forcing of climate change.
Chapter 11 References
Chubachi, S. A special ozone observation at Syowa Station, Antarctica from February 1982 to January 1983. Greece. QO3 Symposium, Figure 1, p. 284. ... Solomon, S., R.R. Garcia, F.S. Rowland, and D.J. Wuebbles. On the depletion of Antarctic ozone. Nature. 321:755-758.
8 March
Both poles experience ozone depletions, but the Antarctic...
OZONE DEPLETION. During the early stages of evolution on Earth, life forms could only survive in the oceans, under the protective shield of the water. ... All land-based organisms could become extinct. Since the first observation of the thinning of the ozone layer, annual measurements have been made of what is now known as the "Ozone Hole". It is not really a hole, but an ozone depleted area at the poles.
25 December
11. depletion of the ozone shield
11. OZONE DEPLETION A. Nature and Importance of the Ozone Shield B. Formation and Breakdown of the Shield 1. Ozone Formation 2. Chloroflourocarbons in the Atmosphere 3. Ozone Hole C. Coming to Grips with the Problem 1. CFC History 2. International Agreements 3. Action in the USA 4. Consequences of International Cooperation 5 ... 3. Ozone Hole yy Scientists noticed a O3 hole (thinning) in 1985 over Antarctica ––. –– –– may impact phytoplankton, which in turn could have a severe impact on the food chain.
GE510 Physical Principles of the Envt | 2. O3 ozone
3. Polar night allows ozone depleting chemicals to build up on cloud ice particles, polar day allows light to release and react these ozone depleting chemicals. 15. Strat. Ozone depletion occurs in the polar spring over antarctica, moreso the farther south one goes. Empirical findings of Farman et al. validated the predictions of Molina and Rowland. Argentine Islands.
Boston College International and Comparative Law Review
Ozone depletion has been classified by some as the most immedi-ately pressing environmental issue.33 Antarctica is the most affected area with an ozone hole opening up each spring since the mid-1980s reaching its maximum size in early October and then slowly closing.34 A smaller seasonal hole has also begun to appear each spring over the North Pole, and.
Ozone Depletion - Observations
Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone - Observations. ... Observations over the N.H. from 1979 through 1998. Quicktime movie of the 1998 Antarctic Ozone Hole.
21 July
Chapter 10. stratospheric ozone
Discovery of this " antarctic ozone hole" (as it was named in the popular press) was a shock to atmospheric chemists, who thought by then that the factors controlling stratospheric O3 were relatively well understood. The established mechanisms presented in sections See CHAPMAN MECHANISM and See CATALYTIC LOSS CYCLES could not explain the O3 depletion observed over Antarctica.
The Link to the Ozone Problem | The Ozone Depletion Process
The "ozone hole" was first discovered in Antarctica by Joseph Farman and colleagues at the British Antarctic Survey in 1985. They observed the radiation coming from the Sun and noting the increase in UV(B) radiation. This increase is especially strong during the southern spring (September and October), when an "ozone hole" develops. ... The Ozone Depletion Process. Step 1. CFCs originate entirely from human activities.
29 September
Impacts of solar ultraviolet-B radiation on terrestrial ecosystems
This decline represents, on average, an 11% reduction in ozone levels [8]. Regarding the biological component, Tierra del Fuego is unique in that it is the only area of the world regularly affected by severe ozone depletion that is covered by well developed terrestrial ecosystems. These ecosystems are productive and diverse, particularly in comparison with the ecosystems of Antarctica, where most of the UV-B re-search has been carried out.
Antarctic ozone hole. The most widely used images
Severe depletion of the Antarctic ozone layer was first observed in the early 1980s. Antarctic ozone depletion is seasonal, occurring primarily in late winter and early spring (August-November). Peak depletion occurs in early October when ozone is often completely destroyed over a range of altitudes, reducing overhead total ozone by as much as two-thirds at some locations.
Global ozone depletion.
(ii) ozone levels remain stable between November and September; (iii) ozone depletion extents over most of the Antarctic continent; (iv) ozone hole continuously deepen since 1984; (v) balloon measurements show that ozone depletion occurs at altitudes between 10 and. 20 km. Connection of ozone hole and air motion over Antarctica: Wintertime polar vortex is a powerful circulation system that develops in the southern stratosphere every fall and winter.
Fig. 5.2. Spring ozone depletion over the Antarctic and the...
The chemical contributions to ozone depletion are gen-erally understood well enough to describe the annual ozone losses observed over Antarctica as a result of efforts to understand the ozone hole observed there. Over the Arctic, however, ozone depletion processes are often much more complicated and depend greatly on climate conditions and climate change.
Decadal evolution of the Antarctic ozone... - CaltechAUTHORS
Ozone column amounts obtained by the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) in the southern polar region are analyzed during late austral winter and spring (days 240–300) for 1980–1991 using area-mapping techniques and area-weighted vortex averages. ... The mean ozone depletion rate in the vortex between day 240 and the day of minimum vortex-averaged ozone is about 1 DU d^(?1) at the beginning of the decade, increasing to about 1.8 DU d^(?1) by 1985, and then apparently saturating thereafter.
19 October
Chemical Processes Leading to Polar Ozone Depletion
Keywords: Ozone, ozone shield, ozone hole, ozone destruction cycles, ozone depleting substances (ODS), chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), polar stratospheric clouds (PSC), polar vortex, heterogeneous reactions, chlorine nitrate. Introduction. ... It is now accepted that the ozone depletion observed in the ‘ozone hole’ over Antarctica and over the North Pole is caused by chlorine and bromine compounds in the atmosphere.
The topics covered were: ozone research, ozone depletion, Antarctica ozone, Arctic ozone, ozone depleting substances, and winter ozone summaries. Upon reading the information I was glad to hear that the ozone should be back to normal in a few decades. However I had no idea that ozone concentration has been depleted most over the Antarctic and that the depletion is most severe during the spring.
DOCX
CHEMISTRY 311
2-4 What are the steps in Mechanism II by which atomic chlorine destroys ozone in the spring over Antarctica? Once Cl is released from reservoir species (described in Review Question 2-3), it rapidly is converted to ClO. With high ClO concentrations, Mechanism II occurs effectively according to ... 2-7 What are two effects to human health that scientists believe will result from ozone depletion?
3 May
Chlorine-catalyzed Ozone Depletion Mechanism
• By 1985, scientists saw a drastic thinning of the ozone layer over Antarctica, an annual phenomenon dubbed the “ozone hole.” • Research since then has deepened our understanding of the causes and dangerous environmental and human health consequences of ozone depletion, showing that effects appear not just at the poles, but all over the world.
Global | CFCs and Ozone Depletion
Although ozone depletion and the global warming are separate environmental issues they share some common elements. ... Curiously, one of these large-scale environmental issues (ozone) received immediate attention and despite a host of. 2. Figure 1. Purple area above Antarctica represents the maximum loss of ozone that defines the extent of the ozone "hole" over the South Pole.
Polar Ozone Loss
Somehow ozone over Antarctica was being devastated! There was a buzz in the scientific community and several different theories about ozone depletion were put forth. It was known that polar stratospheric clouds (PSC), made mainly from HNO3?3H2O [13, 21,22] or ice [22], float over Antarctica. ... Molina and Molina [11] put forth a set of reactions suggesting that chlorine from CFC’s was the main culprit in ozone depletion over Antarctica.
19 August
COMMISSION
the Antarctic ozone hole in 1991 was as deep and extensive in area as those of 1987, 1989 and 1990. Observations in Antarctica. ... The pane I reports are the most up to date review on the extent and effects of ozone depletion, and of the technical progress made in finding safe alternatives to ozone depleting substances.
Protecting the Ozone
TOMS: Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer. Minima in fall stratospheric ozone in Antarctica. ... Discovery of Ozone Hole. ? Rowland, Molina, and Crutzen shared 1995 Nobel Prize. ? Analyzed atmospheric data and identified chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as the main culprits in ozone depletion. ? CFCs are man-made as opposed to natural OH• and NO • radicals.
Atmospheric Changes | Ozone layer
Stratospheric Ozone depletion. Cause: ODS (ozone depleting substances) CFCs, its substitutes HCFCs, Halons Methyl bromide (pesticide of strawberries). ... • New estimates: Ozone layer in mid latitudes will not return to pre-1980 levels until 2049 Antarctic ozone will only return around 2065 This year's Antarctic ozone "hole" was the largest ever recorded.
Paper Session III-A - Volcanoes, PSCs and Ozone Depletion
This ozone removal process is sioila r to that which produces Antarctic ozone hole, except that the surface in the latter case is p rovided by polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). ... August and September at high southern latitudes) CI2 disassociates into highly reactive Cl, which in tum is responsible for ozone destruction via gas-phase chemical reactions. An additional factor governing the depletion in the ozone hole is that the initial stage of PSC formation involves sequestration of a significant fraction of.
Im, Jung-Sun
distributions of aerosol and ozone associated with the Antarctic polar vortex processes could aid in answering the question: “How do stratospheric trace constituents respond to polar vortex processes and influence the ozone depletion?”. ... Solomon, S., R. W. Sanders, R. R. Garcia, and J. G. Keys, Enhanced chlorine dioxide and ozone depletion in Antarctica due to volcanic aerosols, Nature, 363, 245-248, 1993.
Ozone depletion vs. Global
Ozone depletion vs. Global Warming. • Yes, CFC’s (Chloroflourocarbons) and Ozone (O. ... Ozone Depletion vs. Global Warming. • Stratosphere • Cools the. stratosphere • CFC’s and NOx • Reduce [O3]. • Less Ozone means more UV radiation = more skin cancer.
Stratospheric ozone layer depletion...
Though the problems caused by a depleted ozone layer were not debated, the idea that CFCs contributed to the depletion of ozone was highly controversial. ... February l984.--A fourth NAS report down tilny$ the potential harm to the ozone layer from CFCs, by lowering depletion estimates to 2 to 4 percent, October 1984—A British research group led by Joe Farman detects a 40 percent ozone loss over Antarctica during 'lustre Spring
atmospheric chemistry | Antarctic Ozone Concentrations
Atmospheric Chemistry Ozone is a form of oxygen which has both harmful and beneficial qualities. While each molecule of the normal oxygen we breathe is composed of two oxygen atoms, each ozone molecule has three. At ground level, ozone is considered a pollutant, formed in urban areas by reactions of volatile organic compounds (hydrocarbons) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). ... Manmade chemicals that have been implicated in ozone depletion include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
14 July
Characteristics of tropospheric ozone depletion
Arctic ozone depletion events (ODEs) are caused by halogen catalyzed ozone loss. In situ chemistry, advec-tion of ozone-poor air mass, and vertical mixing in the lower troposphere are important factors affecting ODEs. To bet-ter characterize the ODEs, we analyze the combined set of surface, ozonesonde, and aircraft in situ measurements of ozone and bromine compounds during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS), the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Pro-cesses...
A Closer Look at the Details of Ozone Depletion
Use the websites listed for each section to answer the following questions about the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, global warming. Some of the answers to the questions can be found in more ways than one website. The order of the questions does not necessarily follow the order of the websites. ... last Christmas (winter). last AprilFool’s Day (spring). What was the stratospheric ozone level over Antarctica?
21 December
3) What are the best remedies to stop ozone layer depletion?
Ozone layer depletion is caused by free radical catalysts like nitric oxide, chlorine and bromine. These are naturally occurring, but their abundance in the atmosphere can be increased by the release of man-made compounds like chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s). After the discovery of the ozone hole in Antarctica CFC’s were banned worldwide, and since then ozone depletion has slowed down.
25 January
Picture 1. The ozone hole over Antarctica (blue color)
Ozone loss was first detected in the stratosphere over Antarctica. In 1985, Vienna Conception related to the ozone layer protection was proclaimed. In 1987, one hundred and forty nine nations signed the Montreal Protocol. But these actions didn’t solve the problem. ... Causes for the ozone depletion: 1) the usage of chlorofluorocarbons, known as CFCs or Freon, which dissociate into dangerous chlorine compounds.
How Volcanoes Work - volcano climate effects
Recently, however, an ozone hole has been detected in the stratosphere over Antarctica, presumably due to the atmospheric build up of ozone-destroying CFCs by humans. Ozone depletion has resulted in a greater penetration of ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface, which is harmful to life on earth because it damages cellular DNA. The ozone effect does not appear to have a direct influence on global temperatures.
5 September
Hole in the ozone layer
7. List 3 other areas in the Southern Hemisphere that are also experiencing ozone depletion. 8. During which months of the year does the ozone layer thin drastically over Antarctica? 9-10. What natural processes could also be contributing to ozone depletion? 11-12. What are other sources of chlorofluorocarbons besides aerosol propellants? 13-14. Explain how CFCs are rapidly destroying the ozone layer.
III. Ozone Depletion (Hole vs thinning)
OZONE THINNING Great Success Story! Large Antarctic Ozone thinning three times the size of the United States. September, 2000. III. Ozone Depletion (Hole vs thinning). ... Energy + O2 a O + O Energy + O2 + O a O3. Seasonal Effects: Arctic Nights (3-4 months of little or no sun) Wind Slows reducing turbulence and mixing Much more hazard over Antarctica, than Arctic. C. Ozone destruction. 1. NO from N2O attacks O3 (natural).
Ozone Depletion Internet Research
Ozone Depletion Internet Research Go to: Read the material on this website and answer the following questions: What are the units of measure for ozone? Write the Chapman equations: Which compounds deplete the ozone? ... What is the “recipe for ozone loss”? What is being done to reverse the trend? Go to: What determines how much UV radiation reaches the earth's surface?
DOC
British scientists monitoring ozone layer over Antarctica since 1957. Data indicated that total amo. By the mid-1980s, areas where the ozone disappeared entirely, thus a “hole” in the ozone. Evidence that between 1977-1984 the concentration of ozone above Antarctica plunged 40%. ... to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. Treaty went into effect on.
PPT
Antarctic Research
My previous entries described the trip South to Antarctica and everyday life at Palmer Station. You may be wondering at this point why we are down here? To do research, of course! We are working under a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to investigate the effects of ozone depletion on marine invertebrate animals.
20 August
1MontrealProtocolon Substances That Deplete the Ozone...
28, 1988, at 63. 2 J.C. Farman, B.G. Gardner, and J.D. Shanklin, Large Losses of Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal ClOx/NOx Interaction, 315 NATURE 207, 210 (1985). Ozone concentrations over Antarctica have been measured since 1957 and a steep decline has been observed since 1977. ... See Antarctic Ozone Depletion More Rapid Than During Any Other Period
Chapter | Why is the ozone layer getting smaller?
increase, ozone concentration decreases (Antarctica) . Other chlorinated compounds from natural sources do exist e.g ClONO2 and HCl. Unlike CFCs they are water soluble so hardly reaches the stratosphere due to rain. ... Antarctic Seasonal Ozone Depletion. June-Sept. lower hemisphere coldest and darkest, -90oC.
The International Struggle to Save the Ozone Layer
1987) [hereinafter OZONE]; The Natural Resources Defense Council recently demanded a ban on methyl chloro-form (MC), claiming it causes sixteen percent of ozone depletion. MC is currently used as an interim substitute for CFCs, primarily to remove grease from metals. ... In 1987, a region of low ozone over Antarctica lasted until late November/early December, which is the longest since the region of low ozone was firsdtetected. Id. 60. Williams, Trouble in Store, The Seattle Times, Mar.
About Antarctica
About Antarctica is organized into three sessions. The sessions are designed to be read in succession, although they should be equally effective in any order. Session One addresses the development and environment of the continent itself. It includes sections on: Plate Tectonics, Topography, Weather Patterns, Ice Coverage and Movement, Global Warming and Ozone Depletion, and Antarctic Research. A review activity and user response form also are included.
4 August
Chemical Reactions in the Atmosphere | The Ozone Hole
would harm plants and animals.. Each year since the mid-1970s, scientists have noted a disappearance of approximately 70% of the ozone (O3) layer above Antarctica during the Antarctic spring, creating what is commonly known as the “ozone hole.” ... A less extensive zone of depletion has been detected over the Arctic as well. Years of study from the ground, from the air, and from satellites in space have shown that chlorine from industrial chemicals used in spray cans, foam packaging, and refrigeration materials is...
8 August
At ground level, high concentrations of ozone are toxic to people and plants. The Ozo The depletion of the ozone (O3) layer was first reported in 1985 by British scientists who said the amount of ozone had been decreasing over Antarctica since the late 1970s Depletion of the ozone layer over the poles is most severe in the winter months The greatest loss is over Antarctic Map of ozone over Antarctica (1997) in Dobson.
PPT
Satellite observations indicate a worldwide thinning of the protective ozone layer. The more noticeable losses occur over the North and South Poles because ozone depletion accelerates in extremely cold weather conditions (EPA-OAQPS Ozone: Good Up High, Bad Nearby). In the mid-1980's, scientists discovered that a "hole" - an area where the ozone is up to 50% thinner than normal - develops periodically in the ozone layer above Antarctica.
27 December
Polar Ozone Hole
Why is the Ozone Hole only over the North and South Poles, and not distributed evenly over the earth's atmosphere?; Where is the ozone hole and how fast is it expanding? A number of processes and effects that occur simultaneously are believed to be causing seasonal polar ozone depletion known commonly as the "Ozone Hole".
13 June
Why is this important? Reduce ozone depletion and support...
Ozone Depletion, Enhanced Refrigerant Management. Why is this important?
1 August
Outline: Week 11: Ozone
The Ozone Depletion Phenomenon What is ozone? How did researchers discover its role in Earth's atmosphere and the devastating consequences of its depletion? This article from the National Academy of Sciences attempts to answer these and other related questions.
24 November
Key Words: Antarctic Treaty, Antarctica, CO2, Lead, Ozone...
The Ozone Layer provides the earth with protection from harmful ultra violet radiation. Within the past few decades, scientists have found a decreased concentration of ozone above Antarctica. The National Science Foundation to the United States provides information and background on the science behind the Ozone Layer and its depletion.
31 October
Illustrated Glossary of Organic Chemistry - Ozone depletion
Ozone depletion: Removal of ozone from the Earth's ozone layer, both by chemicals of man-made origin such as CFCs and nitric oxide, and by natural substances such as methyl bromide. Stratospheric photolysis of CFCs such as Freon-12 establishes a radical chain reaction, resulting in the destruction of thousands of moles of ozone per mole of CFC.
13 October
ground shields the planet from much of the sun damaging ultraviolet radiation researchers realized that gases such as chlorofluorocarbons and halons which were commonly used in appliances such as refrigerators spray cans insulation foam and fire suppressants led to the depletion of the ozone layer noaa researchers said the scientific community found a seasonal ozone hole over antarctica and spurred action to prevent. its growth almost two hundred countries joined together to ratify the montreal protocol which is designed to...
15 February
Atmospheric ozone: an update
Why does the Antarctic ozone hole occur only in spring? The catalytic reactions with halogens involve an initial photochemical breakdown of compounds such as CFCs, which is not possible in winter when polar sunshine is inadequate. ... Ozone amounts over Antarctica can now be measured by a Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), which currently is aboard two polar-orbiting sattelites (2). The first TOMS on a satellite was on NASA’s Nimbus - 7, from 1978 - 1993.
12 August
For general information on ozone depletion and...
Concern over the annual ozone hole over Antarctica led the Reagan administration to agree to the 1987 Montreal protocol phasing out chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting compounds. ... You see a link between depletion of the ozone layer and increasing rates of skin cancer. Describe your support for a public education campaign encouraging the use of sunscreen, sumglasses and hats and limited exposure to the sun during the midday.
Task 3: Ozone Depletion Potential of Industrial Chemicals
Task 2: Ozone hole for 2006. Task 3: Ozone Depletion Potential of Industrial Chemicals. Task 4: CFC Fate and Transport Modeling. ... Background. Stratospheric Ozone Depletion was one of the most politically charged environmental issues in the 1970s and 1980s. As more scientific evidence surfaced throughout the 1980s and 1990s, antics by publicity seekers were replaced by international agreements and national legislation to deal with this issue.
7 November
Ozone Chemistry Links
Ozone Sounding at Neumayer -Ozone Soundings at Neumayer Antarctic Research Station Since 1992 regular ozone soundings have been performed using ECC 5A sensors mounted on RS80 radiosondes. ... Ozone Depletion FAQ Part I: Introduction to the Ozone Layer Ozone Depletion FAQ Part II: Stratospheric Chlorine and Bromine Ozone Depletion FAQ Part III: The Antarctic Ozone Hole Ozone Depletion FAQ Part IV: UV Radiation and its Effects.
20 September
Chapter Objectives | Ozone Depletion
Ozone Depletion. • Several layers of the atmosphere and their altitudes. ... • There is evidence that the presence of bromine and chlorine in the stratosphere increases the rate of ozone depletion, creating a seasonal ozone hole over Antarctica and North America.
Ozone depletion events observed in the high latitude surface...
The vertical lines denote the gradient in ozone as the aircraft descended into or ascended from the low altitude flight leg. The locations are identified in Figure 1. (b) Ozone mixing ratios for most of the 24 low altitude flight legs where no clear ozone depletion was observed. ... Kreher, K., P. V. Johnston, S. W. Wood, B. Nardi, and U. Platt, Ground-. based measurements of tropospheric and stratospheric BrO at Arrival. Heights, Antarctica, Geophys. Res.
C. Extent of Ozone Depletion
C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner &J. 0. Shanklin, Large Losses of Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal ClO.NOx Interaction, 315 NATURE 207 (1985). 11. See, e.g., Susan Solomon, Progress Towards a Quantitative Understanding of Antarctic Ozone Depletion, 347 NATURE 347, 350, 352 (1990).
Antarctic Temperatures Disagree With Climate Model...
“If you have less ozone, there's less absorption of the ultraviolet light and the stratosphere doesn't warm as much.” That would mean that winter-like conditions would remain later in the spring than normal, lowering temperatures. “In some sense, we might have competing effects going on in Antarctica where there is low-level CO2 warming but that may be swamped by the effects of ozone depletion,” he said.
15 August
Landmark Agreement to Strengthen Montreal
In the United States, for example, Con-. likely be delayed by fifteen years over Antarctica, to 2065, and. gress included “adjustments adopted by the Parties thereto and. by five years at mid-latitudes, to 2049, with the delay at mid ... Shortly after the Protocol entered into force, the science. tions (“CERs”) by capturing and destroying HFC-23 by-product. of stratospheric ozone depletion and the Antarctic Ozone Hole. emissions.17 HFC-23 is a super-GHG with a global warming.
OZONE DEPLETION
4 February
Icecolors '93: Biological weighting function for the ultraviolet
The study was conducted at Palmer Station, Antarctica, prior to the opening of the ozone "hole" and during the onset of depletion (August and September 1993) and onboard the RIV Polar Duke along the Antarctic Peninsula for the remainder of the ausrral spring. ... The use of any DNA-action spectra (Setlow 1974; Hunter, Taylor, and Moser 1979) as a biological weighting function would, however, overestimate the predicted effects of the ozone depletion on primary production.
Effects of UVR on biogenic sulphur production in
Antarctic ozone depletion was first documented in 1985, and was thought to peak between September and November (Frederick & Snell., 1988). Currently, stratospheric ozone loss over Antarctica typically falls to around 50%, and as low as 30% of pre-hole values, and persists through to February, coinciding with the period of maximal microbial production (Kerr, 1998; Davidson & van der Heijden, 2000).
Concepts of energy and heat
Projected ozone depletion with no action Projected ozone recovery because of restrictions. ... Two-thirds of Earth’s ozone is gone – not just over the poles, but everywhere. The ozone hole over Antarctica has a twin over the North Pole. The UV radiation on mid-latitude cities like Columbus is strong enough to cause sunburn in 5 minutes.
WMO, 1998, Scientific assessment of Ozone Depletion...
The Antarctic ozone hole is formed when there is a sharp decline in the total ozone over most of the Antarctica during the Southern Hemisphere spring. ... White, W.B., and Peterson, R.G., 1996, An Antarctic circumpolar wave in surface pressure, wind, temperature and sea–ice extent, Nature, Vol. 380, pp 699-702. WMO, 1998, Scientific assessment of Ozone Depletion, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Report No. 44, Geneva.
These features and other aspects of the 2013
Figure 6.9 displays Oc-tober averages of total ozone derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, 1979), the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, 2006– 2010) and the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite Total Column Nadir Mapper (OMPS TC-NM) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite (2012 and 2013). Prior to 1980, severe ozone depletion over Antarctica was not evident.
Oxygen | 2.8 Ozone Destruction – where is it going?
} The world came together to solve the ozone depletion problem and solved this issue through legislation. ... } There is an ozone hole above Antarctica.
So What’s the Matter With Ozone? | Figure 1 Ozone Depletion
DEPLETION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE (GOOD OZONE) We know that ozone levels are a problem, so let’s look at stratospheric ozone first. With a lit-tle chemistry, we can see how ozone is being depleted. ... 4 - CI destroys ozone 5 - Depleted ozone > more UV 6 - More UV > more. skin cancer. Figure 1 Ozone Depletion. When CFC’s rise to the stratosphere, they undergo a significant reaction.
What causes the ozone hole?
The consequences of reduced Ozone include an increase in the amount of ultraviolet radiation at the surface of the Earth. This movie describes the causes of ozone depletion and some of the consequences of this reduction. Credit: This movie has been provided by Planet Earth Science, Inc. and is part of an educational CD-ROM product titled "Antarctic Expeditions: Ozone Hole."
26 April
What’s Being Done? Reduce production of ozone-depleting...
Ozone “hole:” a depletion or thinning of ozone concentration in stratosphere. Depletion caused by chlorine-based aerosols, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). ... Effects of Ozone Depletion Ozone absorbs UV radiation, protecting organisms at earth’s surface from these harmful rays • Increased skin cancer • Reduced crop yield • Reduced phytoplankton, disrupted food chain • Increased smog, acid deposition.
Project MUSE - Ozone Depletion and Climate Change
Matthew J. Hoffmann explores the fundamental question of who should participate in the global response to ozone depletion and climate change. Blending social constructivist theory with insights from the study of complex adaptive systems, Hoffmann develops a unique framework for understanding the emergence and evolution of participation norms, which define the appropriate global response and shape how states have perceived the problems, defined their interests and strategies, and pursued governance.
17 April
Ewan McIntosh | Design Thinking, Education & Learning...
edu.blogs.com›…edublogs/2005/11…geograp/comments/
-- Ozone depletion varies geographically and by season. The term ozone hole refers to the annual, temporary reductions in the polar regions, where large losses in ozone occur each spring (up to 70% over 25 million km2 of Antarctica and 30% over the Arctic) followed by recovery in the summer. This reduction is caused by an increase in concentrations of stratospheric chlorine from breakdown of human manufactured CFC emissions, as well as other gases.
4 July
Ozone and climate change are indirectly linked
No, ozone depletion itself is not the principal cause of climate change. However, because ozone absorbs solar radiation and is a greenhouse gas, ozone changes and climate change are linked in important ways. Stratos-pheric ozone depletion and increases in global tropospheric ozone that have occurred in recent decades both contribute to climate change.
Chapter 2: protecting the ozone layer
reaction sites for the conversion of non-ozone depleting particles to reactive species. When the sun finally comes out in Antarctica in late September and early October, the UV radiation releases Cl. free. radicals, initiating the destruction of ozone. The images of the “Purple Octobers” in 2.25 Consider This. reflect those changes. The general extent of the depletion in the Northern Hemisphere is not as severe as in the Southern Hemisphere.
A Shattered Sky
Since its discovery in 1985, the ozone hole above Antarctica has grown to three times the size of the continental United States. In addition, according to Gore, "scientists believe it is only a matter of time before significant ozone depletion occurs in the Northern Hemisphere" (87). The ozone layer in that region is already thinning, "almost 10 percent in just four decades" (Gore 87).
31 May
Learning Objectives
The amount of ozone in the upper atmosphere has been steadily decreasing and was first noticed as a hole in the ozone layer above Antarctica. Although this phenomenon is very serious for countries like Chile, it is also serious for everyone since the amount of ozone depletion is global. It is just more pronounced over Antarctica because of less air circulation over Antarctica.
20 June
Secondary Pollutants of NO | OZONE DEPLETION
FACTORS AFFECTING OZONE DEPLETION man made chemicals in the atmosphere. 18. very reactive and quickly disintegrate to harmless components or give rise to secondary air pollutants. ... 24. International Policy. After the presence of ozone hole over Antarctica was confirmed in 1985, many of the world’s government decided to act. In 1987 The Montreal Protocol was signed which called for 50% reduction in CFCs production by 1999.
Biology Seminar Spring 2012
Wade Jeffrey. UWF. Antarctica & ozone depletion: The south pole and the Pensacola Connection. February 3. Jane Caffrey. ... Wade Jeffrey. UWF. Part II: The effects of ozone depletion and increased UV on Antarctic bacterioplankton. February 17. Ludmila Cosio-Lima.
24 December
University of Chicago Law School | I. Ozone and Montreal
A salient incident—a kind of 9/11 for climate change—might be sufficient to change those attitudes; perhaps it is necessary as well.231 Recall in this connection that public opinion with respect to ozone depletion was affected by the salience of skin cancer and by the discovery of an ozone “hole” over Antarctica.
Multiple Linear Regression (Homework Problem)
Nitrogen oxides are known to react with ozone in the upper atmosphere, leading to its depletion and the formation of the ozone hole over Antarctica. One of these reactions is given by: ???? (??) + ??3 (??) > ????2 (??) + ??2 (??) The following was determined at the laboratory (?? = 25?). ... To answer this point, insert the required equations using excel. 3. What does the value of ?? tell us about the ozone depletion?
Natural replacements for ozone-depleting
Natural replacements for ozone-depleting refrigerants in eastern and southern asia. ... ABSTRACT. A computer model has been written to predict the consumption of refrigerants for vehicle air conditioning in China, India, South Korea and South-East Asia, their effect on ozone depletion and global warming, and their costs.
QELP Data Set 012
They are broken down by strong ultraviolet light in the stratosphere and release chlorine atoms that then deplete the ozone layer. CFCs are commonly used as refrigerants, solvents, and foam blowing agents. The most common CFCs are CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, and CFC-11, which constitute Group I . The ozone depletion potential (ODP) for each CFC is, respectively, 1, 1, 0.8, 1, and 0.6.
6 April
Ozone-water clusters: nbo analysis of
The depletion of the ozone layer by a series of reactions with other atmospheric molecules in the upper atmosphere is today an important and interesting problem. The ozone-water interaction could be a key to understand reactions responsible for ozone depletion and changes in the global climate. ... It has been observed that the hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica is created at the end of the polar night, when both clouds and light are present in the lower stratosphere.
Environmental Management & Pollution
Ozone depletion has worsened since 1985. Today springtime ozone levels over Antarctica are less than half of levels recorded in the 1960s, and the 2006 Antarctic ozone hole covered 29 million square kilometers, tying the largest value previously recorded in 200. In the 1990s ozone loss by the same mechanism was discovered in the Arctic springtime stratosphere, although Arctic ozone depletion is not as extensive as in Antarctica because temperatures are not as consistently cold.
Free Riders, Side Payments, and
By the 1960s, many cars were air-conditioned with some type of Freon refrigerant, and by the 1990s, when the push to phase CFCs began, 94 percent of all cars had Freon-based air conditioning.5 Chloroflourocarbons became unpopular as a result of three developments: the energy crisis of the 1970s, Molina and Roland’s Ozone depletion theory of 1974, and the “ozone hole” discovered over Antarctica in 1985.
NASA and the Environment: The Case of Ozone Depletion
Significantly, as a global environmental problem, ozone depletion underscored the importance of NASA?s ability to observe Earth from space. Moreover, the NASA management team?s ability to apply large-scale research efforts and mobilize the talents of other agencies and the private sector illuminated its role as a ?lead? agency capable of crossing organizational boundaries as well as the science-policy divide.
29 December
Ozone-Depleting Substances
Ozone-Depleting Substances. Humans have introduced many compounds into the atmosphere that are capable of disrupting the cycle of creation and destruction of ozone molecules in the stratosphere. ... This discussion will focus primarily on CFC's, although the basic process of ozone depletion is very similar for any of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS).
21 July
Современные экологические проблемы. Сборник текстов...
When the Antarctic summer arrives, the high-altitude winds forming the circular pattern around Antarctica begin to break up, and the ozone rich air from the north flows back across the Antarctic region to replenish the depleted ozone layer. ... Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are the primary human emissions that cause ozone depletion. These substances are usually found in aerosols and coolants used in refrigerators, freezers and automobile radiators.
27 April
A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the
As research into CFC and ozone chemistry continued, Rowland reported (11): “The greatest surprise in the CFC-ozone story was revealed in the spring of 1985 with the dis-covery by Joseph Farman of…the British Antarctic Survey of massive springtime losses of ozone over their station at Halley Bay, Antarctica.” ... 11. Rowland, F. S. Nobel Prize lecture, entitled “Stratospheric Ozone Depletion by Chlorofluorcarbons” reprinted in Angew. Chemie, Int.
Citing Styles - CSE Citation Sequence Method
Antarctica's ozone layer is threatened by depletion. NY Times. 1994 Oct 8;Sect A:7(col 6). ... 12. Chiuchiolo AL, Dickhut RM, Cochran MA, Ducklow HW. Persistent organic pollutants at the base of the Antarctic marine food web. Environmental Science & Technology. 2004;38(13):3551-3557.
16 April
From Stratospheric Ozone to Climate Change
The analogous ozone depletion in the Arctic regions was not as severe, although substantial late winter/spring ozone destruction was observed during unusually cold stratospheric winters in the 1990’s. However, although less severe, this diminution affects areas of the globe which are heavily populated, and thus corresponds to a higher risk in terms of human health.
The Ozone Layer
There is considerable recent concern that manmade compounds may be depleting the ozone layer. Such a depletion could have dire consequences for life on the Earth. ... Thinning of the Ozone Layer. The right panel discusses ozone holes, which are not literally holes but are regions in which the ozone concentration is abnormally low. Ozone holes are seasonal and are most common over Antarctica.
1 March
Ozone Depletion
The stratosphere extends upward from 6 to 30 miles above the Earth's surface. And protects the surface from the sun's ultraviolet rays. This natural shield has been depleted by human chemicals like CFCs and thus allows more UV rays through to the surface which increases health problems like skin cancer and cataracts.
20 December
Visualizing Environmental Science | Effects of Ozone Depletion
The Effects of Global Climate Change. • Warmer Antarctica temperatures threaten the Adelie penguin’s food supply and reduce reproductive success. ... • Ozone depletion means more UV radiation reaches Earth’s surface. – Disrupts ecosystems – Linked to ocular issues, weakened immunity and skin cancer. • This graph shows the average yearly ozone column over New Zealand and the correlation with annual melanoma rate.
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone...
The UNEP Ozone Secretariat and the OzonAction Programme websites provide extensive information and avenues for assistance to persons interested in ozone depletion, and the mechanisms by which this can be done. ... The Montreal Protocol and all of its amendments address the issues around all ozone-depleting substances, of which halons are only one group. There are specific requirements for countries dealing with halon phase out.
30 November
II. the ozone depletion problem ..
Finally, this comment will review the accord's limitations and suggest ways to use it as a basis for the development of new mechanisms to protect the global environment. II. The ozone depletion problem. ... MONTREAL PROTOCOL. layer over Antarctica. A natural filter, ozone screens out much of the dangerous solar radiation thought to be responsible for increased inci-dence of skin cancer, crop reductions and even harm to the body's im-mune system.
Lessoneight | Depletion of the Ozone (O3) Layer
The ozone depletion process begins when chloroflurocarbons (CFCs), also known as Freon, and other ozone-depleting substances (ODS) leak from equipment (Step 1 figure). CFCs are extremely stable, and they do not dissolve in rain. After a period of several years, ODS molecules reach the stratosphere (Step 2). Strong ultraviolet (UV) light breaks apart the ODS molecule.
2 April
Snowflake chemistry could give clues about ozone depletion
- There is more to the snowflake than its ability to delight schoolchildren and snarl traffic. The structure of the frosty flakes also fascinate ice chemists like Purdue University's Travis Knepp, a doctoral candidate in analytical chemistry who studies the basics of snowflake structure to gain more insight into the dynamics of ground-level, or "tropospheric," ozone depletion in the Arctic.
8 December
T HE STEOI program is funded by NASA
that some ozone is also being destroyed in Antarctica during midwinter. Sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosols also play a role in the destruction of ozone. Volcanic eruptions can inject sulfur directly into the stratospheric where it provides a surface for ozone destroying reactions to occur. ... Aug 1994. [7] Susan Solomon. Progress towards a quantitative understanding of antarctic ozone depletion. Nature, September 1990. McMillan Magazines, Ltd.
CASDE | Remote Sensing Glossary - O
A large area of intense stratospheric ozone depletion over the Antarctic continent that typically occurs annually between late August and early October, and generally ends in mid-November. ... The thinning is focused in the Antarctic because of particular meteorological conditions there. During Austral spring (September and October in the Southern Hemisphere) a belt of stratospheric winds encircles Antarctica essentially isolating the cold stratospheric air there from the warmer air of the middle latitudes.
11 June
CHEM1902 Oxygen | Ozone depletion
Ozone depletion describes two distinct but related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume of ozone in the ozone layer, and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions. Note that the Antarctic would be in darkness (no sunshine) for the winter months, sunshine returning in springtime (September). The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole.
30 January
The Earth's Atmosphere
Ozone: good Up High, Bad Nearby, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, and On the Trail of the Missing Ozone, The Ozone Depletion Process ). Refer also to sections 18-2, 17-5 and 17-7 in your text to answer the following questions. What are the 4 layers present in the Earth's atmosphere?
30 April
Ozone's Problem with Polar Stratospheric Clouds
The Antarctic ozone hole is produced every spring over the earth's south pole because of the special conditions that are present in the stratosphere over Antarctica and the presence of completely anthropogenic chemicals spilled into the environment called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Unique Meteorology and Polar Stratospheric Clouds. One of the major factors producing the special chemistry that occurs in the stratosphere there is the cold temperatures present during the Antarctic winter.
31 December
Global Gases II
the destruction of ozone molecules, converting them into oxygen molecules. d. In the Antarctic spring of 1985, half the O3 within the circum polar vortex was destroyed. e. When the vortex breaks up during the summer, the ozone-depleted air over Antarctica mixes with the rest of the stratosphere diluting the global ozone concentration. f. An ozone hole seems to be trying. to form in the Arctic, but so far it is much smaller. D. With depletion of the ozone layer, higher levels of UV radiation reach the Earth's surface, e.g...
The many faces of atmospheric ozone
Ozone trend at halley bay, antarctica (october). Farman et al. paper published in Nature 1 Dobson Unit (DU) = 0.01 mm O3 STP = 2.69x1016 molecules cm-2. 2006 Antarctic Ozone Hole: most severe observed. Aura OMI – 8 Oct 2006. ... The ozone hole is an austral spring phenomenon – it is not there year-round! VERTICAL STRUCTURE OF THE OZONE HOLE: near-total depletion in lower stratosphere.
Ozone Layer Depletion: atmosphere, chemistry, depletion...
edu.glogster.com›glog/ozone-layer-depletion…
What is ozone depletion?It is simply the wearing out of the amount of ozone in the atmosphere.The ozone layer protects the earth from the suns UV Rays. If the ozone layer is depleted by human action, the effects on the planet could be catastrophic. ... Solutions to reduce ozone depletion1. Stop using products with CFCs.2. Follow the 3Rs - Reduce, Reuse and Recycle3.
11 February
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Links Fall 2000
Ozone Hole Tour from University of Cambridge includes animations. EPA: The Science of Ozone Depletion. Questions to consider: What are the sinks for Cl in the stratosphere? According to the U. of Cambridge, what is a recipe for ozone depletion?
13 March
Ozone Depletion
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion. Ozone naturally present in the stratosphere acts to filter out UV radiation which, upon reaching the Earth's surface, can result in an increased risk of skin cancer. The emission of chlorofluorocarbons, used in refrigeration and other industrial applications, has led to an increase in their concentration in the atmosphere.
29 December
Tracking Pollution and Monitoring Ozone Depletion
These improvements are saving countless human lives and have an enormous economic value. Tracking Pollution and Monitoring Ozone Depletion. ... Before satellites, it was assumed that the mass of the ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland was controlled by the difference between ice melt-ing and accumulation rates and that the rate of ice discharge into the ocean was constant.
Solar Nebular Theory
26. General Ozone Loss Comparison. Something Special About Antarctica. ... Antarctic Ozone Hole. • Polar Vortex. – Isolates the south pole and prevents dilution of Cl compounds. – Keep warm air out and allows temperatures to drop to -90 °C. – Cold temps favor PSCs. Antarctic Ozone Hole.
For a common future | 2.1 The causes of ozone depletion
International cooperation for a common future: The case of ozone depletion. A thesis presented by Banu BAYRAMOCLU To. The Institute of Economics and Social Sciences in Partial Fulfilment of the requirements. ... In October 1984, as a results of land-based measurements made at Halley Bay, they detected a 40 percent decline in ozone over Antarctica (52). When the inauspicious news was announced, it astonished the whole world tremendously.
KIT - SCC - Research and Innovation - Computational Science...
Heterogeneous reactions in the Antarctic stratosphere are the cause of chlorine activation and ozone depletion, but the relative roles of different types of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in chlorine activation is an open question. ... Heterogeneous chemistry on liquid particles is responsible for more than 90% of the ozone depletion in Antarctic spring in the model simulations.
5 December
Refrigerants and the | OZONE DEPLETION
Stratosphere 7 – 30 miles. Ozone depletion. • Depletion of the ozone shield – Can cause an increase in skin cancer – Can have adverse effects on crops and other plant life. • An ozone molecule is made up of three oxygen atoms • Chlorine destroys ozone molecules • One chlorine atom can destroy up to 1 million ozone molecules.
Movement of the ozone plume with the air masses
While stratospheric ozone, the good ozone, is considered when discussing the effects of the destruction of the ozone layer, tropospheric ozone, the bad ozone, that is associated with smog does not receive the attention that it should. ... The United States, along with over 180 other countries, recognized the threats posed by ozone depletion and in 1987 adopted a treaty called the Montreal Protocol to phase out the production and use of ozone-depleting substances.
12 February
Discuss the cause and effects of ozone depletion.
2. Discuss initiatives designed to address ozone depletion. 3. Identify equipment and test instruments related to the handling and transportation. ... 9. Discuss the international effort to reduce the effect refrigerants have on global. warming and ozone depletion. Explanation of syllabus: The Student Learning Outcomes listed in this syllabus are those required actions that a student who successfully completes the course must be able to perform or exhibit.
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Ozone Depleting Equipment Maintenance Log. Ships Name: IMO Number
XLSX
Atmospheric Aerosol » Section 8 | II. Ozone Depletion
The atmospheric aerosol has significant influences on two important global atmospheric processes: global cooling and ozone depletion. II. ... ClO is photolyzed back to Cl and the cycle keeps repeating with the continued destruction of ozone. The following equations demonstrate the above process of ozone depletion. Volcanic eruptions can enhance this process by increasing the stratospheric aerosol.
9 March
AIR POLLUTION
1. Lead Levels. 2. Ozone Depleting Chemicals in the Troposphere. 3. Acid Precipitation Chemicals. III). ... What gases are involved: O2 & ozone (O3). B). Is Ozone Depletion a Serious Problem? During seasonal thinning UV radiation can increase 3-20%. Possible effects include
28 October
Air Pollution - 5.Depletion of Ozone Layer
Slowly diffuse through the air and react with ozone, destroying the ozone layer. In 1992, an international agreement was reached for a complete ban on the release of CFCs by 1996 However, even if the use of CFCs is totally stopped at once, the depletion of the ozone layer will continue for many years due to the CFCs already present in the atmosphere. [Schematic of the ozone depletion process, steps 1-6].
21 October
Geog372 Lab 1
Evidence? Anthropogenic Greenhouse effect, current status, go beyond IPCC Ozone depletion, Antarctic ozone hole, 1995-2008, Arctic ozone hole? The Montreal Protocol Sea surface temperature anomalies, 1995-2008, effects? El Nino and La Nina, effects worldwide North Atlantic Deep Water (ocean conveyor) slowing? significance? Sea ice thinning in Arctic, ice sheet calving in Antarctic, significance?
27 June
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 42, October 19, 1992
Protection of the fragile environment of Antarctica is a priority for the United States. Under the 1959 Antarctic Treaty, the continent has been a zone of peace and a place for conducting scientific research into issues such as global climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion. In October 1991, the parties to the Antarctic Treaty agreed to a comprehensive environmental protection protocol designed to ensure the protection of this vast wilderness for generations.
25 January
The previous three paragraphs presented effects of ozone...
The previous three paragraphs presented effects of ozone depletion. Why did the author present these effects in the order that he did? What logic lies behind this order?
30 September
Measurements of CF3-containing compounds in the...
The ozone-depleted Antarctic air becomes. mixed throughout the Southern Hemisphere resulting in an overall decrease of. stratospheric ozone levels (37). ... 39. Zurer, P.S., Ozone Depletion’s Recurring Surprises Challenge Atmospheric Scientists, C&EN, pgs. 8-18, May 1993. 40. Schoeberl, M.S., and Hartmann, D.L., The Dynamics of the Stratospheric Polar Vortex and Its Relation to Springtime Ozone Depletions, Science, 251, 46-52, 1991.
Storms | Ozone lost in waves 26 September 2001
These temporary but substantial episodes of ozone depletion are called 'miniholes'. They are associated with greater levels of harmful ultraviolet rays at ground level - atmospheric ozone usually filters out this radiation from sunlight. Ozone depletion and holes normally surround the poles, where chemical reactions involving human-made CFC gases decimate ozone in the upper atmosphere.
Ozone Depletion and Climate Change
Click icon below... Summary. A path-breaking look at the international response to ozone depletion and climate change. ... List of Illustrations Preface and Acknowledgments List of Abbreviations List of Interviewees. 1. Participation Matters: Governing Ozone Depletion and Climate Change. 2. Alternative Stories: Explaining the Rise and Evolution of Universal Participation.
30 November
Concentrated
(• Introduction Since the initial reports of ozone depletion over Antarctica (Farman at al., 1985] and the implication of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) as crucial to the ozone destruction process [Deshler et al., 1992], scientists have been studying the causes of the ozone depletion.
Chapter 9: Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere
Chapter 9: Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere. Dr. Robyn L. McGilloway, Associate Professor, Natural Sciences.
14 July
Ozone
Ozone gas in the stratosphere helps shield the earth from harmful solar ultraviolet radiation by absorbing damaging UV-B rays (wavelength range 280-320 nm). Releases to the atmosphere of human-made chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting substances are causing a downward trend in stratospheric ozone levels over most of the world. The depletion is generally more severe at higher latitudes, farther from the equator, with the greatest losses (up to 60 percent) in the polar regions.
Mathematics Umbrella Group | MBSP:0365 | Health Risks...
Ozone Depletion | Themes | ObieMAPS
Oberlin collections, courses, faculty/staff members, and study away programs associated with the theme of Ozone Depletion.
5 April
Suggested Research Paper Topics
Aurora borealis Ozone depletion: Causes and effects The Antarctic ozone hole Solar radiation and clouds Doppler radar (anomalous propagation, dual-polarization, false echoes, etc.) Study, formation, and suppression of hailstones Effect of clouds on longwave radiation Fata Morgana Detecting water phase differences with radar Thunder Lightning (sprites, elves, blue jets, ball, positive, etc.)
ENV 150 Chapter 12 Review Sheet: Air Pollution, Climate...
increased or decreased in the United States in the last 30 years? Why? 10. Explain the causes and potential effects of stratospheric ozone depletion. What international agreements. have played a role in reducing the threat of ozone depletion? 11. Explain the reduction in lead emissions, and subsequent improvements in children’s health, in the United.
Pollution: The Sale of Hydroelectricity Under the
In the arena of global ozone depletion, the factors identified above were sufficient to overcome the factionalism that blocked efforts to control ozone-depleting substances. ... For example, shortly after it went into effect, an "ozone hole" smaller than the one over Antarctica was discovered over the Arctic region, causing specu-lation that damage to the ozone layer was already worse than anticipated during the Protocol negotiations.
EPA’s Ozone Depletion Website www.epa.gov/ozone
conditioners) The freon and compressor oil must be removed before disposal or salvage of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. EPA’s Ozone Depletion Website www.epa.gov/ozone. Contains a Fact Sheet that summarizes the final rule and its specifications (also available by contacting the EPA Stratospheric Ozone Information Hotline directly at 800-296-1996) Provides information on the science of ozone depletion and alternatives to ozone-depleting substances.
Antarctic Ozone Hole
Click Here to close the window.
27 April
"Relationship Between Emissions of Human Activities and..."
Ozone depletion always holds an importance being a protective shield to humans and environment as well. Human activities and man-made substances are playing major role to this depletion which is increasing day by day. In this paper influence of man-made substances on ozone depletion and consequences of this depletion have been discussed.
3 March
Ozone Depletion History. In 1985 three researchers (Farman, Gardinar and Shanklin) were puzzled by data gathered by the British Antarctic Survey showing that ozone levels for Antarctica had dropped 10% below normal levels. Why did the Nimbus 7 satellite, which had instruments aboard for recording ozone levels, not record similarly low ozone concentrations?
PPTX
has no chlorine, so it cannot contribute to ozone depletion.
This phenomenon is caused by the depletion of the ozone layer, a result of man- made chemicals released into the atmosphere. Ozone, an oxygen molecule with three atoms instead of the normal two, is found throughout the atmosphere, but especially ... Such arguments arise amidst continued findings by the scientific community that the ozone layer continues to deteriorate over Antarctica, the Arctic, and generally, and increasing evidence that the same substances that deplete ozone are major contributors to global warming.
Daily Ozone Concentration at Halley, Antarctica
British Antarctic Survey.
12 April
Air pollution – Major | Ozone layer depletion
Ozone layer depletion. • Images used to measure hole since 1979. • Since then, increased thinning of layer observed • Most noticeable over Antarctica. – Polar stratospheric clouds accumulate more compounds that accelerate the loss of ozone. ... – Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer & The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
Atmospheric ozone and colors
Because stratospheric ozone is greatly depleted in the austral spring, such decreases could plausibly make Antarctic twilight colors less blue then, including at the zenith. ... 3, 5, and 8). Even though Neumayer and much of Antarctica experi-ence large ozone depletions during the austral spring, these alone are insufficient to account consis-tently for the colors of clear twilights seen from low altitudes.
Ozone Depletion and Green House Effect. - Rai University
Ozone Depletion and Green House Effect. – Environmental Law. Llb el u 3.1 ozone.delpetion from Rai University. Events. Rai University, Ahmedabad is now registered at National Digital Library.
16 December
Protection of the sea (prevention of pollution from ships) act...
Prohibition of carriage or use of heavy grade oil on foreign ships in the Australian Antarctic Territory 11. Duty to report certain incidents involving oil or oily mixture 11A. Shipboard oil pollution emergency plan 11B. ... False or misleading entries in ozone depleting substances record book 26FEV.
3 February
Incorporating Product Design
They have about 90% less ozone depleting potential (Lawrence 2003). HCFCs are now used as a replacement to CFC’s, but they still contribute to ozone depletion and are therefore scheduled for phase-out. 7 of 50. 1.4 Fourth Generation: 2010-A fourth generation refrigerant would ideally be efficient, nonflammable and non. toxic with good stability, no global warming potential (GWP) and no ozone depletion potential (ODP).
The evolution of the Brewer-Dobson circulation
Scientic Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Report no. 52, World Meteorological Organization, 4.1-4.60. [42] Free, M., D.J. Seidel, J.K. Angell, J. Lanzante, I.Durre, and T.C. Peterson, 2005: Radiosonde Atmospheric Temperature Products for Assessing Climate (RATPAC): A new data set of large-area anomaly time series, J. Geophys.
Year of planet earth | Ocean temperatures and the ozone hole
Removing the ozone from the lower stratosphere is an effective way to cool the envelope of cold air over Antarctica (Fig. 2). Thus, the depletion of ozone, like the increase in CO2 concentration, has increased the thermal contrast in the south and helped to make the southern westerlies stronger25.
II. Differences Between Ozone Depletion and Climate Change
Daniel Magraw suggests that the comparison between the problems of ozone depletion and climate change down-plays the significant differences between the two problems and criticizes the use of cost-benefit analysis as a reliable analytical method. In addition, he writes that actual governmental decisions about climate may be motivated by consider-ations beyond relative costs and benefits.
Arctic ozone : the sensitivity of the ozone layer to chemical...
Climatic changes. Ozone layer depletion. ... Ozone-depleting substances.
19 January
Los Rios Community College District /All Locations
Ozone Layer Depletion Environmental Aspects. c2005. 1. 3. Ozone Layer Depletion Prevention History 20th Century. 2003. 1. (Search History) SUBJECT: Ozone layer depletion in View Entire Collection (Clear Search History) (End Search Session).
25 August
eThemes - Science: Ozone
Science: Ozone Discuss this eTheme. These sites are all about the ozone, a form of oxygen. Sites include information about what ozone is, the ozone layer, why it is important, ozone depletion, and UV protection. Includes images, graphs, animations, interactive applets, games, and video. Resources for older students can be found towards the end of the list of links.
16 October
Modern ecological problems
When the Antarctic summer arrives, the high-altitude winds forming the circular pattern around Antarctica begin to break up, and the ozone rich air from the north flows back across the Antarctic region to replenish the depleted ozone layer. ... Ultraviolet radiation from ozone depletion may be the cause of decline in amphibian populations of the Western United States, according to the US Geological Survey (USGS). The regions where these disappear-ances have occurred are relatively pristine and the amphibians were...
Business and International Environmental Treaties: Ozone...
In the case of ozone depletion, industry concentration and the technological factors provided incentives for industry leaders to invest in alternative products and processes. By contrast, fossil fuel substitutes present a long-term strategic threat to the major sectors that produce and use these fuels. Where relatively few actors were involved in ozone depletion, it will be much more difficult to craft an agreement that is acceptable to the broad range of industries affected by climate change.
6 October
Atmospheric consequences of cosmic ray variability
Present UVB enhancement from current ozone depletion ?3% is a documented stress on the biosphere, but a depletion of the magnitude found at the upper end of our range would approximately double the global average UVB flux. We conclude that for estimates at the upper end of the reasonable range of the cosmic ray variability over geologic time, the mechanism of atmospheric ozone depletion may provide a major biological stress, which could easily bring about major loss of biodiversity.
Table of Contents
1.2 Ozone depletion The ozone layer is part of Earth’s stratosphere, which consists of relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3) (Gleason, 2008). ... CFCs indeed have low reactivity, which give them lifespans of more than 100 years in the Earth’s stratosphere where ozone was found to be decreasing 4-5% per year, ultimately causing seasonal areas of complete ozone depletion over the Antarctica (Nash and Newman, 2001).
Wexler on the possibilities of ozone depletion and climate...
So remember it was Wexler, about 50 years ago, who first claimed climate control was “respectable.”4 The stratospheric ozone story is also very significant, given that the received history of ozone depletion dates only to the 1970s and certainly does not include Wexler’s role.
Limited effects of Antarctic Ozone Depletion on Sea Urchin...
Stephanie Watson Coordinator, Central California Ocean Observing System (CenCOOS). April 21. Limited effects of Antarctic Ozone Depletion on Sea Urchin Development. Deneb Karentz Dept. of Biology, University of San Francisco.
2. Ozone depletion and its Treaties (The Montreal protocol).
2- Global Environmental Challenges and Selected Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs): (2 weeks) • Introduction to global environmental challenges: Land degradation, water scarcity, coastal and marine pollution, forests and biodiversity, and atmosphere (talk about ground level ozone) • Environmental International Law • Chemical Cluster of MEAs: Basel, Rotterdam, Stockholm conventions, SAICM (Strategic Approach for International Chemicals Management) and Montreal and Kyoto Protocols. 1- Ozone Depletion and its...
What is “good” and “bad” ozone
The ozone that is commonly associated with ozone depletion and the ozone “hole” is in the stratosphere, a layer that extends upward from about 10 to 30 miles (15 to 50 kilometers) above the earth. ... Here, ground-level or "bad" ozone is an air pollutant that damages human health, vegetation, and many common materials. It is a key ingredient of urban smog.
2 March
IMPACTS: Green House Gasses, Ozone Depletion, Energy Use, Natural Resource Depletion, Landfill Space, Energy Recovery… ... Inve Description of all key processes Inventory of each process exchange with environment Data collection for Inventory Gasses that lead to global warming Gasses that lead to ozone depletion Gasses th The LCA.
PPT
Ten Breakthrough Actions Vital to
NASA image of ozone hole over Antarctica, 1985. In 1970, Dutch atmospheric chemist Paul Crutzen, then affiliated with Oxford Univer-sity, demonstrated that nitric oxide reached the stratosphere and could deplete the ozone layer. ... Seven years later, in 1985, a team of British scientists announced that they had discovered ozone depletion over Antarctica, proving the Rowland–Molina hypothesis correct.
Patrick M. Eggleston Biology Department
Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion. Ozone Hole Watch. ... Climate Change may become major player in Ozone loss. Fixing ozone hole raises warming concerns.
23 February
Ozone Depletion Substances (ODS)... - UM Repository
Mahmood, Noor Zalina (2010) Ozone Depletion Substances (ODS) Emission Analysis from the Life Cycle of Chemical Substances and Electricity Used in Potable Water Production in Malaysia. Aust. J. Basic & Appl.
5 June
Food for thought
Ozone plays a vital role in life on Earth in stopping harmful UVB ultraviolet rays from the sun. UVB radiation is linked to skin cancer, cataracts, suppression of the body’s immune system, damage to materials such as plastics and harm to certain crops and marine organisms. ... ? Ozone depletion is being blamed for a signicant reduction in the amount of krill - a vital link in the food chain -in the Southern Ocean.
Weather
Former EPA Administrator William K. Riley announced the phaseout on his last day in office, adding the soil fumi-gant and agricultural chemical to a list of materials linked to ozone depletion. Riley said the action was justified under The Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 which requires EPA to phase out production and import of five ozone depleters: CFCs, ha-lons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl choloroform (all class I substances) and hydrochloroflurocarbons or HCFCs (class II).
Introduction to Chemistry | The Ozone Layer (cont.)
• Scientists have learned the ozone thinning occurs over Antarctica every spring. The Benefits of Chemistry. • Chemists solve many real problems we face today such as: – Ozone depletion – Finding cures for diseases – Reducing the weight of cars. Section 1.4 Assessment. What are accidental discoveries, like penicillin, called?
Other chemicals that will abs Ozone Depletion I Chemical Causes of Ozone Depletion 1. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - CF2Cl2 - freon, propellants, styrofoam. Non-reactive, non-corrosive, non-toxic, non-flammable. 2. Halons - Fi How Ozone Deple CFCs are usually stable, but UV is high energy and can break the chlorine bond.
PPT
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3 July
Page 478
Mid-latitude ozone at 40 km decreased 3-9% between 1979 and 1986, which is within the range of predicted depletion due to chlorine from industrial CFCs [3]. Simultaneous measurements of 03, and the radicals C10. ... [21] J. Farman, B. Gardiner, and J. Shanklin, "Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOs/NOz interaction," Nature, vol. 315, p. 207, 1985. [22] M. Molina, T. Tso, L. Molina, and F. Wang, "Antarc-tic stratospheric chemistry of chlorine nitrate, hydro-gen chloride, and ice: release of active...
Air
Assessment (UNEP) Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 1996 Executive. Summary (UNEP) Heath Effects from Increased Exposure to UV-B Radiation. (CIESIN) Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (CIESIN) Ozone at Ground Level (Brinch - Denmark) Ozone Depletion FAQs (Univ.
8 December
UV-induced DNA damage and repair: a review
surface.1–4 Ozone depletion has been reported in the Antarctic as well as in the Arctic and sub-arctic regions,5 but it is most pronounced over the Antarctic, where ozone levels have declined by more than 70% during late winter and early spring during the last few decades. This decline in ozone level is commonly attributed to a unique combination of extreme cold and stratospheric circulation (the polar vortex) which results in conditions that are favorable for the CFC– ozone reactions.
Chemistry Safety Notes
Layers of depleted ozone open up over both poles just as winter gives way to spring. ... The surfaces of the cloud particles host chemical reactions that release chlorine that came from CFCs. The chlorine, in turn, goes on to destroy ozone—but only in the presence of light. That is why, over Antarctica, ozone loss doesn’t get going in earnest until September, the beginning of the southern spring, when light returns to the pole.
Ocean Asteroid Impact Could Deplete Earth’s Protective...
24, 2010 --An asteroid crashing into the deep ocean could have dramatic worldwide environmental effects including depleting the Earth’s protective ozone layer for several years, a Planetary Science Institute researcher has found. ... “The results suggest that mid-latitude oceanic impact of one km asteroids can produce significant global perturbation of upper atmospheric chemistry, including multi-year global ozone depletion comparable to record ozone holes recorded in the mid 1990s.”
24 October
Ozone dynamics and seasonal
Enhanced ozone depletion at mid latitude resulting from additional heterogeneous pro-cesses after large volcanic eruptions is an important factor in the observed long-term ozone changes [Shibata and Deushi, 2008 ]. ... During polar spring these processes lead to the stratospheric ozone hole, where, over Antarctica, typically all ozone at about 15 - 20 km altitude is destroyed.
Database Search Tips and Tricks
Example: typing in ozone layer depletion may really mean ozone AND layer AND depletion. ... 3. Implied Phrase Searching: Searches for a phrase, i.e., 2 or more words that are adjacent and in the exact order. Example: typing in ozone layer depletion may actually mean ozone layer depletion. If in doubt, use a Boolean operator! 2. Try Truncation!
There are currently no lecture pages posted.
3rd chapter (atoms and molecules) note pages 4th chapter (Units and Numbers) note pages Quantum_world note pages Evolution note pages ozone depletion, global warming, pseudoscience note pages.
18 March
The Ozone Hole
The ozone layer will get thinner and thinner, then large of harmful ultraviolet light reach the earth surface. Therefore beware of sunbathes,( your body) protect the ultraviolet light with special substance. These substances are called pigments, they also change your skin color from white to brown. ... Now you can see every summer, over the is Antarctic this ozone hole and it will keep on happening until we stop using CFCs and cars when it is to hot outside.
3 December
Suggested Research Topics
depletion, landslides/mudslides) Cloning Creationism/Evolution Cybercrime Digital Divide E-commerce E-learning/distance learning Genetic/stem cell research/testing Global warming/ozone depletion Identity theft Internet filtering Intellectual property and piracy Lead/lead poisoning Natural disasters (hurricanes, tsunamis
Dr ryan L fogt
Low to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations and stratospheric ozone depletion. J. Climate. Expected submission: September 2013. b) In Press 2014 Clem, K. R.*, and R. L. Fogt. Varying roles of ENSO and SAM on the Antarctic. Peninsula Climate. J. Geophys. Res, in press. c) Published 2013 Fogt, R.L., (Associate Editor and Section Author). Antarctica [In “State of the Climate in. 2012”]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.
Global Warming: Man or Myth - Greenhouse Gases
Because the melting of Antarctic ice takes centuries there is time to lower the "tipping point" level of CO2 before it is too late. When Antarctica was last ice-free, sea levels were 70m (~230 feet) higher than today. ... This suggests that the portion of stratospheric cooling caused by ozone depletion should have ended and warming would result in the absence of other forcing mechanisms because of the increased absorption of incoming SW radiation from the sun.
5 June
Ozone depleting substances elimination management: The...
Matlievska, Margarita (2013) Ozone depleting substances elimination management: The success story of Macedonia. ... Consequently, they have a great impact on quality of life. Among the most harmful chemicals are Ozone Depleting Substances that are subject of regulation with international conventions. This Paper supports the fact that each country has to undertake national efforts for ozone depleting substances reduction and elimination.
7 December
Lessons from the montreal protocol: guidance
The Montreal Protocol for Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is one of the most successful international environmental agreements to date. With a continued spirit of cooperation, the parties to the treaty have consistently relied on important international environmental legal principles as the foundation for adopting effective steps to address stratospheric ozone depletion.
Ozone depletion and climate change : constructing a global...
56840567 2005 Sherman Library Ozone depletion and climate change : constructing a global response / Matthew J. Hoffmann. 63164518 2005 E-BOOK. Add Marked to Bag Add All On Page.
30 November
Physics literacy, energy and
Many physics and societal lessons become obvious when one presents ozone depletion followed immediately by global warming. Both topics involve regions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultraviolet and infrared, respectively). ... It is not surprising that these are the rst environmental issues of truly global reach, in the sense that the CFCs or carbon dioxide released by a spray can or automobile in Chicago soon creates problems in Africa and Antarctica.
Stratospheric ozone depletion by Ozone Depleting...
Ozone concentration [mPa]. - black: 1970 - red: 1980 - green: 1990 - blue: 2000. Outlook. 2. Ozone shield (stratospheric ozone) 3. Ozone in planetary boundary layer (air. pollution) 4. Ozone in free troposphere (greenhouse. gas, climate change) 5. Concluding remarks: Ozone in future ? ... Emissions of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS). Chemical Ozone Depletion (by ODS).
Abatement : Reducing the degree or intensity of
Antarctic "Ozone Hole": Refers to the seasonal depletion of ozone in the upper atmosphere above a large area of Antarctica. ... Class I Substance: One of several groups of chemicals with an ozone depletion potential of 0.2 or higher, including CFCS, Halons, Carbon Tetrachloride, and Methyl Chloroform (listed in the Clean Air Act), and HBFCs and Ethyl Bromide (added by EPA regulations).
My choice: illinois tech
And when alumna susan solomon discovered the cause of ozone depletion in antarctica. ... Jason resch (CS ’06)— software engineer with more than 58 patents (and 200 pending) to his name. susan solomon (Chem ’77)— discovered manmade chlorofluorocarbons were destroying the ozone layer. Victor Tsao (M.S. CS ’80)— co-founder of Linksys.
Smuggling Networks and the Black Market in Ozone...
5 February
Special Supplement to the
The observed global time series of lower stratospheric temperature reflects the combination of these natural sources of interannual variability with long-term anthropogenic cooling effects from ozone depletion and greenhouse gases. ... Active layer depths range from over 1.6 m, especially at bedrock sites in the maritime Antarctic, to less than 0.1 m in some sites in continental Antarctica (Vieira et al. 2010). Here, tem-peratures are often taken from shallow boreholes and may not be representative of the mean annual ground...
ZM AASE(NH)
bution for the AAOE and AASE missions using the shift- has formed through the effect of ozone depletion. averagedfields. ... Toon, G. C., et al., Infrared aircraft measurements of strato-spheric composition over Antarctica during September, Geoph•ts. lies., 9`/, 16.571-16,596, 1989. Proffitt, M. H., et al., A chemical definition of the boundary of Tuck, A. F., Synoptic and chemical evolution of the Antarctic.
Advancing Our Understanding of the Atmosphere and
It has depleted ozone in that region of the atmosphere where it is most important, as can be seen in the annual declines of stratospheric ozone in the polar regions—notably the Antarctic “ozone hole”—and increased it in the troposphere where it is most harmful. ... 4World Meteorological Organization, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1994, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 37, NASA, Washington, DC (1995).
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